Just What Is SIP And SS7…. And How Do They Work With VoIP?

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Signaling System 7 (SS7) are the common protocols used for transmitting voice across networks. Just how they work with VoIP….or not….opens the door for both concerns and opportunity.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a protocol developed by IETF MMUSIC Working Group and proposed standard for initiating, modifying, and terminating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video, voice, instant messaging, online games, and virtual reality. SIP is a text based, signaling protocol similar to HTTP and SMTP , and its used to create, manage and terminate sessions in an IP based network. A session could be a simple two-way telephone call or it could be a collaborative multi-media conference session.

Entities interacting in a SIP scenario are called User Agents (UA) User Agents may operate in two fashions –

o User Agent Client (UAC): It generates requests and send those to servers.

o User Agent Server (UAS): It gets requests, processes those requests and generate responses.

SIP works as follows: Callers and callees are identified by SIP addresses. When making a SIP call, a caller first locates the appropriate server and then sends a SIP request. The most common SIP operation is the invitation. Instead of directly reaching the intended callee, a SIP request may be redirected or may trigger a chain of new SIP requests by proxies. Users can register their location(s) with SIP servers.

Now…..how is this different than the SS7 protocol?

Here’s a simplied explanation:

Signaling System 7 (SS7) is architecture for performing signaling in support of the call-establishment, billing, routing, and information-exchange functions of the PSTN, whereas SIP is a protocol which is used for maintaining sessions in VOIP.

SS7 are used to set up the vast majority of the world’s PSTN telephone calls, where as SIP in used in IP network.

A little more on the differences between SS7 and SIP.

SS7 uses a common channel for signalling call setup and tear down information for circuit switched services. It is common to have hundreds or thousands of voice circuits controlled by a pair of 64 kb/s signalling links. SS7 was specifically designed for circuit switching although it has some very sophisticated additional call control and transaction control capabilities.

SIP is an IP based signalling solution which does not use a separate signalling path, but relies on the IP connectivity from the originator to a Server and thence to the terminating end. It is used for packet based communications and allows for many different call types such as video, gaming interaction etc as well as voice.

As SIP is implemented with the deployment of next generation networks I am certain we will see both some very interesting network behaviours, untold new technical issues as we iron the bugs out and probably new opportunities for fraud. They should be interesting times.

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White Label Vs Private Label Reseller Programs

There are so many reseller programs now available particularly for online businesses such as web hosting and text marketing. These are the types of businesses that are easily adaptable to become available for resellers. Many resellers will do so through white labeling or private label reselling. This is a good way to start your own online business or to add a service to your already existing online enterprise. Many who are knew to this type of online enterprise may not understand the difference between white label vs. private label reseller programs. As previously mentioned, there is little difference between the meaning of white label vs private label when it comes to reseller programs. Both terms are used to describe the same type of reseller marketing.

Definition of white label marketing:

A product or service where the provider of the service purchases a supported product from another source and then applies its own name, brand or identity to the service and sells it as its own product. Through white labeling, the customer should assume the seller is selling its own product.

Definition of private label marketing:

Similarly to white label, a private label product is one that is manufactures and provided by one company but is sold under the name or identity of a different company. Private label can occur in a variety of products and services including online reseller programs as well as foods, cosmetics, and web hosting. Most of the time the products offered under private label are offered as the lower cost alternative products compared to the “name brand” of the product or service. Businesses of all sizes offer various types of private label marketing.

As you can see, both white label and private label can be used interchangeable with reseller programs. Most reseller programs under white labeling often find it is far more lucrative business than what is sold through the original business. With consumers always looking for ways to save money while shopping, they often allocate their shopping dollars to generic store-name brands, or will go with the reseller company that can offer the best and most affordable deal. This is standard practice for most consumers, which is why reselling can be a great way to make money online. Most consumers also know and understand that name brand services are not necessarily any better than what is offered by the generic or business label that is private. Because they know this, those who choose to become a reseller can easily undercut the prices of other providers and still make a profit by making the same quality of service cost less, and therefore become more appealing to potential customers.

The difference:

While it may seem that white label and private label are the same thing because they have such a similar meaning, the terms cannot be used interchangeably. The difference between these two types of marketing is that with private labeling, it is a practice that is generally followed in stores. The product is generally manufactured by the same manufacturer that creates the same product for the name brand also sold in stores. With white labeling, it is traditionally used in reference to a service particularly sold online. With white label the logo and name are on the label, the location where they are available for purchase is also on the label as well as the price that the reseller sets. However, with private label, the logo and name are on the label. The locations at which the products are available for purchase is also listed along with the price and what is contained in the box or packaging.

White labeling and private labeling is helpful for those who are interested in starting an online business, but need the support and resources to do so. Reseller programs are an easy and affordable way to make money online or to add a service to your online business. With white label reseller programs, you can make the business your own. All you need is a business/service name and a website. With these tools, you can use your salesman skills to get your own clients, help them manage their accounts and continue bringing in more business. By doing this, you can easily start up your own online business without the hassle of getting a business license and actually go through the formalities of starting up your own business. However, it is important to keep in mind that with white labeling or private label reseller programs, you become entirely responsible for the entire service and operation. This is because with white label, the service you are taking on is your own. This means you control customer accounts, the control panel as well as customer support, billing, etc. With the customer support part of the service, you can always consult the original business to get more information about the product and service and trouble shooting issues if you ever need help in order to provide assistance to your own customers. If you are ready to take on the responsibilities associated with white labeling and private labeling reseller programs, this is a great chance to make money online selling a product you believe in.

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7 Benefits of the Doctor and Clinic Management System Software

A cloud-based clinic management system addresses your hospital management related woes. It brings simplicity to the patient appointments, their treatment, medical billing and payments and services that take care of other requirements of the hospital.

Advantages of a Cloud Compliant Software

A software that leverages the cloud technologies in full, offers flexibility, cost saving, fast service, ease of accessibility and sustainability.

Flexibility

Even small hospitals can harness the power of this type of software. As the business grows, the software automatically scales itself to the hospital’s increasing needs without the user having to provide for it. The software is easy use, at its fullest, right from the first day.

Cost Saving

Choosing to use clinic management software located on the cloud platform is cost effective for the hospitals. It is an attractive choice for the small as well as big hospital setups.

It requires no expenditure on hardware, equipments and trained IT staff. These are the resources that a hospital, supporting an in-house IT setup must utilize. They are costly.

This highly optimized software is maintained, updated and configured in the cloud by the skilled IT experts. The users are, thus, spared from the burden. It leads to cost saving. Unhindered, the hospital staff stays focused on the core functions of the hospital.

Harness it From Anywhere at Anytime

The hospital administrator acts as the super-user of the software. He or she, then, grant access permissions to the others. The managers, doctors and others can then access the necessary data stored in the cloud, from anywhere at anytime.

They can use smartphones, tablets, phablets, laptops, notebooks and desktops over the internet for the purpose.

Fast Service

This software gives fast, easy and simple solutions for the hospitals in managing their day-to-day activities. It helps in streamlining patient management, inventory management, employees’ and doctors’ attendance, online report generation and other tasks.

Sustainability

For hospitals using this software, it is easy to recover from an on-site disaster. Their data is stored in the cloud, where it remains safe. It is repeatedly backed up. They need to simply access it to get their system online.

Features of the Cloud Based Clinic Management System

1. Patient management: Maintains records of the patients that include personal details, visits to the hospitals, allergy related data, medication, etc.

2. Appointments and schedule management: Determines the availability of the doctors before scheduling appointments. Uses powerful search engine to set up an appointment for the patient. The software assists the staff in knowing the availability of the beds for the patient’s hospital stay.

3. Alerts: Sends alerts and reminders using SMSs and Emails. It notifies the patients about the future appointments and vaccination schedules.

4. Purchase and inventory management: Keeps track of the drugs, equipments, instruments and other hospital items in the stock. Generate expiry alerts for the drugs in stock. Assists in creating a purchase list.

5. Records: Stores all the electronic medical records of the patients and the data related to the hospital, in a central place. It is available to the authorized persons from anywhere, at any time. Doctors can use the patient data to conduct medical research.

6. Payment Processing: Assists the hospital’s accounting department in, accurate medical billing to the patient. Provides connectivity to the top accounting software and eases the tasks of accountants.

7. Lead Generation: It assists the business managers employed by the hospitals in lead generation and tracking.

It is easy to start using a cloud-based clinic management system software. It needs no installation and one can access and start using it over the internet, in a jiffy.

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Phone Systems For Small Business – 8 Criteria For Evaluating an IP Phone System

Shoretel’s CEO, John Combs, presented a keynote address recently at IT Expo West, providing very relevant advice to IT managers and others buying a voice over IP (VOIP) phone system. He used the MAC iPhone as an analogy, to illustrate how new technology can quickly dominate an industry. In the case of a VOIP business phone system, IP technology is poised to dominate correspondingly over existing analog (TDM) systems.

VOIP telephone systems can greatly increase user adaption rates, leading to improved productivity in an organization. An IP phone system allows the collaborative and reach aspects of unified messaging technology. The VOIP telephone system generally includes features such as teleconferencing, unified messaging (voicemail in email), web collaboration, mobile integration (cell phones), presence (to locate employees quickly), instant messaging, video conferencing and business process integration (customer relationship management, sales, accounting, etc.).

What differentiates one vendor’s small business phone systems from another’s? Mr. Combs suggests a a very structured selection process when choosing office telephone systems with VOIP for business. He proposed 8 evaluation criteria to be used by the evaluation team making the choice of a new VOIP business phone system:

  1. Usability. There must be an onsite demonstration including the exact hardware to be deployed. It is often advisable to have two or more vendors demonstrate side-by-side, or on the other hand to install alternative prototypes at two separate company offices and then exchange systems and locations to find out which one was best.
  2. Reliability. What is the anticipated failure rate, based on actual deployed systems using Bellcore/Telecordia standards? Mr Combs pointed out that academic failure rates are not sufficient for confidence in deploying a new system. You don’t want to the the “guinea pig” for a vendor’s prototype or Beta testing.
  3. Availability. Make certain understand the impact of downtime on the business based on the planned configuration. Count the points of failure are there in the vendor’s configuration?
  4. Scalability. What are the costs should you need to double the planned configuration?
  5. Architecture. What methodology was used to design the system? Was it well thought out or technology patched together from disparate systems and conflicting architectures?
  6. Total Cost of Ownership. Most of the time upfront costs (hardware, network and implementation) amount to only 20% of the complete system expense over the system’s lifecycle. Day-to-day costs (training, move/add/change, system management, network and utilities) can amount to 80% over the system lifetime. What is the case with the systems under consideration?
  7. Vendor Financial Status. Make sure the vendor has a solid balance sheet, or be prepared for support issues should they encounter financial difficulty.
  8. Vendor References. Your team should contact their industry associates for information relevant to the vendors being considered Did they make a wise decision with this vendor? Do they know of other references? How do actual costs compare to vendor estimates? Is it easy for IT staff to support? What about any “raving fans?”

When evaluating to upgrade small business phone systems, the usual choice is a VOIP business phone system. A careful evaluation of each vendor’s offerings and in particular the presence of “raving fans” for any VOIP business phone system are critical in getting all the benefits of VOIP for business.

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If You Want to Communicate Brilliantly, You Must Master the Golden Triangle of Communications

Because the three communication skills that generate win-win solutions, and build trust and respect, are:

* LISTENING to the answers generated by,

* ASKING many questions, and

* SUMMARISING periodically, as a means of feedback.

Do you want to be a brilliant communicator? Do you want to influence others easily? Is it part of your self improvement programme? If so, learn to listen, ask and summarise.

Let’s look a bit more closely at each of them.

Listening is the single most important and effective of the communication skills. If you want to be a great conversationalist or you want to be great at establishing rapport, and building relationships with others, or you want to be in control, and influence people, learn to listen. This is not the same as hearing though. It is defined as: making a deliberate effort to understand the significance of what is heard

This means that when you register a sound (hear it) you do some work inside your minds and body – you put in some effort (you listen to it). For example, you interpret the sound to determine, does it matter? You question what the meanings of the sound might be. You associate the sound with other experiences in your internal mental and emotional databases. You ask if the sound needs a response and, if so, what? You think about the implications of the sound for you and others and, internally, you ask many questions about it. In this way, you are making a deliberate effort to understand the significance of what you heard – you are listening. To listen is hard work, as it requires high levels of mental energy and concentration.

In any communication between people there are two things going on at the same time (at least). On one level, there is the content of the communication – what are they communicating about? On another level, there is the process and the relationship – how and why are they communicating? This may include, for example: are they communicating in ways that are building trust or suspicion? Are they creating mutual respect or disdain? Are they enjoying the experience? Will their relationship be stronger or weaker as a result of this communication? Listening can be geared to either one or both of these levels. There is also another language that needs “listening” to – body language – with skillful observation and interpretation.

Asking means questioning, of course, and there are different types of questions and they achieve different things. Listed below are seven really useful types of question:

1. specific, precise, closed questions – very useful for getting accurate, factual information (provided the person answering tells the truth). This type of question will usually get you the facts but that may be all you get. If you want to get things flowing a bit more, you will need to use open-ended questions.

2. open-ended questions – very useful for getting the other person to talk and share opinions.

Great when you are not sure what you’re looking for or when you want to build relationships and establish rapport or when you want to be in the receiver mode.

3. if you combine 2. and 1. above, in that order, you will create funnel questions. Funnel questions work like a funnel in the sense that they start very wide (open-ended questions); you listen to the answers and select something to ask a question about in more detail (your questions are getting narrower); you listen to the answers you get now and ask even more focused questions to funnel in (i.e. specific, precise, closed questions).

4. comparative questions – ask a person to think about a situation, think about a different situation and compare them. Comparative questions are very good for revealing what matters to someone and what they value

5. summarising questions – great for checking out that the messages that are being communicated are being understood as they were intended. They also help you to stay in control and to ensure that you, and others, don’t drift off all over the place (unless you want to, of course).

6. short questions – intended to keep you, the receiver, receiving, and the other person talking, as well as making progress on whatever the communication is about. Short questions are most typically the six words: “what?; who?; when?; how?; where?; and why?”. The most probing of these questions is, “why?”. Depending on the situation, handle this question with consideration for the other person as it may come across as aggressive or cause the other person to feel inadequate.

7. the seventh type of question is the absence of a spoken question – it is a pause or silence.

In some situations, especially if your communication with another person has reached a sensitive point, the approach that will get the best response is to shut up, maintain supportive eye contact and body language, and wait. Most people don’t like the silence that ensues and the other person may well speak out revealing more information. There is, of course, a judgement to be made here as pauses or silences that go on too long may be embarrassing and weaken rapport. The judgement is, how long is too long?

Summarising means accurately repeating back the message that has been transmitted. It is time and effort very well spent because it will:

* ensure understanding

* demonstrate that active listening is taking place

* build relationships (e.g. trust, respect, mutual support)

* confirm or clarify key points

* explore any perceived contradictions

* explore any new information

* reinforce openness and honesty

* confirm common ground

* create opportunities to correct any errors in the communication process.

Summarising is really valuable but is too often rarely seen in communications. It is a great test of listening, of course. If you can’t summarise accurately what has been said, you probably were not listening in the first place (which is pretty insulting to the others, isn’t it?).

In summary, it is the golden triangle of communication skills – listening, asking and summarising – that is the key to achieving great solutions and building trust and respect with others.

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Mobile Phone – A Necessity or an Addiction?

Oh! This would be a very typical question in this current generation. I would tell that it has become addiction rather than necessity, especially for young people and children. Though mobile phones are initially used as a better way of communication, but it started to take an essential part in human’s life. Definitely, it has given us many dramatic benefits and allowed to move forward along with technology. This technological development caused many upgrades to traditional phones that were used before. Of course, this development can be one of the reason for mobile phone addiction, than a necessity.

Cell phones are one of the major technological instrument that is used more often. Initially, it was the instrument that was available to only a few people and today 9 out of 10 people own a cell phone including school going children. It is acceptable that it provides a better mode of communication, saves time, helps manage finances on the move, cheaper and is hugely convenient. But with these pros that are a part of necessity, there are few cons that make it as an addiction. Mobile phones should be an essential part of your life, but to should control your life. Until it is maintained as essential part it is a necessity, once it starts to control your life then you are in trouble of addiction. Mobile phone addiction can lead to severe distress and can result in severe physical problems which can cause permanent damage.

Points to remember to get rid of addiction and medical problems

• Limit your usage of cell phone. Set particular time at which you should check notifications received. If possible, try to customize notifications.

• Delete unnecessary apps from your phone like social media apps as there are not that much essential.

• Avoid usage of phone while in bed. Try not to use a mobile phone at least one hour before going to bed.

• Instead of using a smart phone, better switch back to traditional phones which are always the best choice.

• Get into the real world and try to be a part of human life. Start your conversation directly rather than through texting or calling.

• Usage of headset or speaker is better as it can avoid radiation.

• Children should not be allowed to use a mobile phone, instead engage them in outdoor activities.

Prevention is always better than getting cured. So try to control yourself with mobile phone usage and set some time limit to have a healthy relationship with mobile phones.

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What is a PABX and How Does it Work?

The acronym PABX stands for Private Automatic Branch Exchange, which is basically just another term for a telephone system, also known as a switchboard. These units are usually used as an internal telephone system in offices.

PABX systems will often have a lot of internal lines connecting to one main switchboard. The reason that the word branch is referred to in the term, is because there are many different mediums connected to a PABX system, connecting all aspects of the system within the business together. PABX systems are incredibly complex machines in that they can be used as telephones, modems and fax machines, and can be used for employees to communicate internally.

How a PABX essentially works is that it is a modem which acts as the central control station. Whenever a new call comes in, it is routed through this control station. Since the PABX has been assigned to special codes per each phone number within in the company, or each extension if you will, the call is going to be directed to the correct place using that assigned code. A PABX can also be programmed so that it greets each caller with an automated message before the call goes through to the assigned line. With regards to the fax function, you can program a line that goes through from the central control station to the fax machine. The machine can also be programmed to go to numerous fax machines.

PABX machines are now being modernised in that they can now be controlled by a computer system which tracks all incoming and outgoing calls. This computer system can be personalised in that it limits who makes calls to certain networks. It is also a very good way of keeping track of employees’ private telephone usage at work.

PABX machines are excellent for businesses because they can be used as auto attendants. By doing this the call will be handled to a certain extent even if there is no-one to answer the call. In this respect, PABX systems are highly effective for large businesses that receive a lot of calls. PABXs are lovely office machines as they have a wide range of different functions besides the ones mentioned above. PABX systems can be used to conduct conference calls, which is incredibly useful if business people do not have time to meet for a face to face meeting. This is very helpful for international clients that can only be met with telephonically.

In conclusion it can easily be seen that a PABX can be of great use to a business. There are many telecommunications companies that sell PABX systems and offer special deals. Some of these deals include actually renting the unit for your company and paying a monthly fee to use it. PABX systems can be quite expensive, and therefore there are packages available which will allow the company to pay a monthly fee to pay off their PABX system. With regards to what it is offering your company in respect to communications and professionalism, the cost can be justified!

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The Teacher As Disciplinarian: Ten Ideas That Really Work!

Ten Ideas You Can Try Right Away

"Discipline is not the Enemy of Enthusiasm!"

– Morgan Freeman as Joe Clark

When it comes to Discipline in the schools, there are many well-publicized and well-marked "systems". People sometimes get carried away with systems, or programs, structures, textbooks, etc., arguing passionately, for example, that block scheduling is better than traditional scheduling, or integrated math is better than traditional math, or whole language is better than phonics, Or this discipline system is better than that discipline system. Similarly, real estate agents will include the name of various school districts in their advertisement for a particular home based on how beautiful the district's buildings are.

The focus, wrongly, is almost always placed on things, and not people. The truth of the matter is, and I'll wait while you etch it in stone, my system will do better than your system if my people believe in our system and are passionately committed to its success. So when you hear the arguments, ad nauseum, for this system over that system in the schools, know that it is not the "thing" that caused the success, but the caring and passionate people working within the system.

The rules of golf, my friends, state that you are allowed to have 14 clubs in your bag. In the "golf course" of life in the schools, do you remember the teacher who only had a "driver" in his or her bag?

As we approach the topic of School Discipline, we must begin with the a priori acknowledgment that the American Juvenile Justice System is built on a rehabilitative model. This starts with the understanding that kids- you were a kid too, remember- are not perfect, that they will make mistakes, and that it is our duty as grownups to help them acquire the social skills needed to function as a productive individuals in society . If the Juvenile Justice system is set up this way, then how much more so must the school disciplinary approach be one that attempts to assist young people so that they improve their inappropriate behavior and become productive individuals? Naturally, this means that kids are expected to get second and third chances, and some attempts at modifying behavior may take several years.

If the people who work in the schools were able to actually "fly the plane" in all respects, there would be no "Zero Tolerance" policies, either, and you would not read about kindergartens kids getting expelled for having a nail file, or Because they cave a member of the opposite sex a hug. These coward politicians love to show how tough they are passing by legislation to expel kindergarten children for hugging somebody or having a pocket knife. Media people, please listen: No real educator would ever come up with a policy like that- even criminals get three strikes- the one strike baseball game was concocted by politicians trying to get votes, not the educators you criticize when this tragedy occurs!

In the Broadway Show Bye Bye Birdie, Paul Lynde, bemoaning the behavior of teenagers "today" (circa 1960) sings in one of the songs this phrase- posed as a question … "Why can not we be like we were, Perfect in every way … what's the matter with kids today, etc.? " A school I attended as a child had this quote on the wall by John D. Rockefeller … "What I am to be, I am now becoming." So, everyone listen carefully … The kids you have right now or are going to have when you are out there teaching have not, unlike you, attained to perfection yet !!! However, throughout through your efforts, patience, and rehabilitation strategies, they may get a few steps closer to the target- but they are not there just yet. So you will have discipline problems.

There are still teachers around who make kids stand in the corner and hold a dictionary in their outstretched arms or have someone write the dictionary, or "I must not talk in class" 500 times. We have all heard the horror stories of actions taken by teachers that do nothing but guarantee that the student will continue to do the wrong thing- often with greater enthusiasm. Do not forget the line from Bye Bye Birdie … they are not perfect yet like you! Remember also that we are not selling a system in this book. You can buy books and take courses. Our purpose in this chapter is to give you a variety of tools- more like 14 clubs for your diplomatic "golf bag" if you will. These are strategies that have a high degree of success and can effect quick change.

PROACTIVE vs. REACTIVE

1. Start With a Positive …

Very few kids are discriminate problems the first day of school or the first week of school. You probably already have an idea about the reputation of most of your students because the grapevine has informed you. The kids that have the potential to have problems have parents who usually are also aware that their child is a problem because that same child is a problem at home. So when these parents come to school angry at you the teacher, it's really a case of misplaced aggression because it is their kid who is driving them over the edge. These same parents have literally beaten on the telephone to me when they received good news about their child from the people at school- because it never happened before this. What's the message for you? While it's still early in the year- before the problems have characterized themselves, look for something positive that these potential problem individuals are doing and contact the parents to tell them the good thing that their child was doing.

Later, you will need the help of these parents to help change their child's behavior and they will remember this phone call and view you as a nice person- a fair person- maybe the first person in the school district who has ever said something nice about Their child. When you call later, you begin by saying … "Hi Mrs. Smith." This is Mr. Jones from the school. Mom will say that yes, she remembers you. You then say, "I need your help with something." Then you explain the discipline problem that her daughter is involved with and ask her if she could get involved at home and works, working together as a team, you and Mom can help the child to improve this problem she is now having. Most of the time, the parents will go out of their way to help you. They will also remember the child that you actually said something nice about them and we want to keep this nice teacher on our side- he's a friend. This potential problem child may start acting better anyway because he realizes that you also make good comments, not just negative ones like everyone else. This is an example of a teacher being PROACTIVE.

2. The Unknown Time-Out

Although this strategy works best with youngger students, used sparingly, it will also be equally effective with high school students. Make a plan with one of the secretaries, the Athletic Director, the Principal in a smaller school, or some other person- sometimes the Librarian, the Nurse, Custodian, etc. You can arrange multiple destinations for the Unknown Time-Out maneuver. When you have one or more particularly difficult students or ones that start well but get mixed up in any of the commotion that occurs in class, you call one of the students up to you desk, hand him a colored envelope that has something in it with The name of the person the envelope is going to on it. You tell the student to take this envelope to the person and wait for a response and then bring the response back.

When the recipient of the envelope sees that particular student or that colored envelope, he or she knows what is going on and tells the student to sit in the waiting area while they get the answer ready. Now they take 10 minutes to prepare the response, give it to the student and tell the student to take it back to you. This student just got a "Time-Out" lasting period 15 minutes without knowing it. This Proactive strategy kept the student from being yelled at again for what would have been his inevitable misbehavior, he has done something that seemed to be responsible, and so you the teacher commented on his reliability and thank him. The anticipated daily problem never occurred in the first place. In this process, the envelope, not the student, can be the indicator, so more than one teacher and additional students can be involved in this process. It is unlucky that the students- even high school students, will ever catch on to this strategy.

3. Inviting the Principal to Provide the Positive

If you had the pleasure to attend a Catholic Elementary School in the mid 50's, you may remember this- ruefully, I do. The report cards were distributed every 6 weeks, so every 6 weeks, the priest would come into class on a Friday to be involved in the process of handing out the report cards to 65 or so students in the class. As the Priest cave out the report cards, he always added a moment or two of editorializing. To this day, I have bad dreams about him saying … "Daniel. Hmmm. Let's see … My goodness, I know your Mother … The Poor Woman will be broken-hearted when she sees this awful report card. " Of course, everyone is sitting all prim and proper with their hands folded, but your buddies are looking at you and silently making faces and laughing all the while. All of this had quite the dramatic effect.

What's the message for you? DO NOT INVITE ANYONE IN FOR A NEGATIVE !!! But, invite the principal in and when he is there, publicly acknowledge the student by saying something like … "By the way Dr. Stevens (The Principal) Billy here has been one of my most improved students this report period- he is Doing some very nice work! " – Or, "Billy, why do not you show Dr. Stevens your excellent Social Studies project?" Billy has been doing some excellent work laately Dr. Stevens! The principal knows that this is his cue to congratulate the child and talk more about how nice it is to see students behaving this way, etc. This is another very proactive way to reinforce any positive behavior being shown by a student who does not show it that often.

4. The Sandwich Technique

The Sandwich Technique comes to us from the world of sports psychology and has been an effective tool for modifying behavior and encouraging people for over 30 years. It has application to almost every area of ​​human endeavor- in fact, you can even use it with your spouse. It begins by getting a person's attention by saying something positive. We say this because, for the most part, whether you are a spouse, an athlete, or a misbehaving child, your ears tend to close when you sense that a negative comment is coming your way- we all tend to tune this stuff out. So we get people's attention by saying something positive first- the ears perk up. The positive is followed by what we really wanted to say- the criticism or negative and any diplomatic action that might be occurring. It is followed by a final upbeat and positive comment. Thus the negative is the Peanut Butter and Jelly, and the positive in front and at the end are the two pieces of white bread.

We'll leave it to you how best to apply it in other walks of life, but consider how it can be used in the school setting by looking at the following hypothetical:

Johnny misbehaved in you class again today. He's actually an intelligent individual who simply is not working to the best of his ability. He has shown flashes of brilliance, but for the most part, is usually at the center of any commotion that goes on in class-he's been turning in some sloppy work just as well. Write a script of what you would say to Johnny making sure to apply the Sandwich Technique.

It might go like this: Johnny, you know that I like you- you and I have developed a pretty good friendship over the last couple of months have not we? That's why I am surprised that it is you I have to talk to so much. I have looked at your test scores and I have seen some of your work and it is excellent- you have the ability to be one of my bright students. Here's the problem, though … this is the fourth time in a row that you have turned in such sloppy work. So I am going to just keep giving it back to you till you do it correctly, and I do not care if it takes you a month to do it correctly. You will have to come in after school to redo the work, Also, if you do not change the quality of your work, then I am going to have Mom and Dad come in, and you know what your father said he would do if I Call him about you, do not you? What do you think would be a good way to fix this problem? (Avoiding the Yes-No question) All right. Let's get back to work, but I want you to know, I think you are a sharp kid, and I was just talking about you in a good way to Dr, Stevens. So let's start doing the work I know you are capable of. Etc. "

5. Divide and Conquer

In this situation, two students are a constant disruption in class. Take one of the students and treat him in a way that is a little less strident than the other. This can be done by rewarding one of the students for doing something right and making it seem as though he is not the real trouble maker in all of these class problems- it's the other guy. The second person will not stay too friendly with the first person, and the first person will begin to distance himself from the second person. You say to the first student, "You know Billy, I look at you as one of my better students and I do not think of you as a troublemaker like some students seem to be in this class. To improve this problem? (Again, not a yes-no) Following the private discussion, you move Billy making sure to explain to him that you want to get him away from the problems so he can do good work and not be bothered all the Time The partners in crime will not be so friendly with each other after you take this action.

6. The Phone Call From Class

Signal for the misbehaving child to join you in the hallway. Tell the child that you have your cell phone "right here in your hand", and if you ever see this kind of behavior again, you are going to call his or her Mom at her place of work right here from class and the child is Going to have to explain to her Mom the reason why the call is being made. The teacher then asks the student how happy he thinks his Mom is going to be to receive such a phone call from school when she is working? When he replies, "Not very happy", say, "Right, not very happy, so I expect to see some very quick improvement in your behavior- got that Billy? The next day, or for the next few weeks or so, if Billy is acting out, the teacher will surely holds the phone up and looks at it and then looks back to Billy. Will have on the other students, notably potential problem individuals when they find out that someone had to actually call his or her mother from class!

7. The Letter in the Drawer

Let's say that a child uses foul language in you class. First you tell him that this kind of language is not appropriate for class and that you and he are going to have to talk about this after class. Quietly, without any overreaction and typically after class, although there may be occasion to use this technique within the earshot of classmates, you tell the student the following: You are really surprised that a person like him would be speaking like that. You then tell him to write down what he said on a piece of paper. Make sure all of the words and details are included in the writing. Then, with a flourish, you place the writing in a business envelope and put a stamp on it and tell the student that normally, this would go directly into the mail with a phone call to let Mom know it is coming. Also, you dramatically write out a disciplinary referral.

Then you may tell the student that you are going to give him a detention for his behavior, but since you the teacher are such a nice person, you are going to keep this letter and the referral in your desk for mow. If this behavior ever occurs again though, both of these items are being sent along with a second mailing for the additional liability. Then you tell the student that this will stay in your desk till the end of the marking period at which time you will dispose of it if he, the child, continues to behave properly. Like the technique involving the cell phone, if the child is starting to misbehave a few days letter, you can point to the letter or the referral as a silent reminder. The child will get the point and probably appreciate your kindness.

8. Invite Mom to come in

This is a great technique for improving everyone's behavior because one visit to your class by someone's Mom who sits right next to her usually misbehaving child for one or more periods and everyone will have because they will fear that they might be next. Kids would rather have root canal than have Mom come in to sit next to them for an entire period or several periods. The process works like this: You make an effort ahead of time to establish a good working relationship with the Moms of some of your most significant problem individuals. You call Mom and invite her in because Junior is misbehaving. Mom comes to class and sits right next to her child and can remain for one or more days. Nobody wants to end this humiliation. Do it just once and many of your discipline problems will be over. The next day after the visitor leaves, the teacher can say … "Well, you saw a parent in here to visit because there were some problems I wanted her to see … who's next?" Do not expect any hands !!!

9. Involve the Guidance Counselor

Without fail, you will find guidance counsel more than happy to assist you in dealing with a student experiencing problems because it gives them the opportunity to do what they went to school to learn how to do. This is important to guidance counselers because, in the present national testing zeitgeist, they have all too often become the de facto assessment coordinators for their school. They have less time to actually counsel children because much of their time is being spent checking bubble sheets, counting booklets, and filling out forms for the state as well as sifting through mountains of paperwork related to special education, for example. As a teacher who sees the same students on a daily basis, you know which students have the most pressing issues related to discipline and which ones would profit most from a visit with the counselor as opposed to a visit with the Principal or Dean of Students. Not every matter needs to go to the principal.

On the other hand, you are out there amidst the masses and you hear various stories about kids regarding things that are happening in their lives. Sometimes you have established enough of a rapport with a student that he or she shares it with you himself. Once a student was talking to me about where she was going for the holidays and matter of actually told me that she and her two sisters are from 3 different fathers and they would be going to see all of the fathers as well as the related grandparents, And even though one of the fathers used to "beat my Mom up", things are pretty good around the holidays as long as he does not get too drunk, etc. The child acted as though this was completely normal, and although she was a discipline problem now and then, after hearing this story, I looked at her much differently. I realized quickly that this was something that should involve the guidance counselor.

Also remember that kids spend more time around the people in school than the people at home, so you will often know immediately when a kid just does not look right which might be an indicator of sexual abuse, drug use, eating disorders, pregnancy, self Abuse, etc. Maybe the grapevine knows about a death, a loss of a job, marital unrest, etc. You are the first line of defense in this process. The counselor has all of the right contacts and phone numbers of professionals that she can bring into the process. When a kid who was never a discipline problem starts to become one, or his work starts to take a negative turn, pay attention and do not just turn directly to the discipline code page in the student handbook. You and the counselor, working together, can be a great force for changing a kid's life- and the matter never has to get to the discipline office. Do not be upset, however, if after the counselor gets involved, he or she is unable to share all information about the child with you. There are some issues with Confidentiality involved, so maybe all you will hear is that "The matter is being taken care of." That may be all you are able to find out.

10. Careful About Examples

Do you remember the movie Home Alone? In it, Mc Cauley Culkin, the child who was left behind is talking to the old man who used to scare him. They are sitting in a church and the kid tells the old man that a certain third grader got "nailed" when kids found out that he wore dinosaur pajamas. If you are not careful about certain examples you speak about to misbehaving kids, you might get somebody "nailed". To clarify, if you had brothers or sisters, do you ever remember hearing this from either of your parents, "Why can not you be more like your brother who always makes the honor roll- he always does all of his work so neatly!

If, as a teacher, you make an example like this by saying, "Why can not you people in the back turn in neat work like Jimmy here- he is such a wonderful student?" … … you may be insuring that poor Jimmy is going to get "Nailed". The world of kids is difficult enough, do not put someone in peril because he or she is a model student. You can still have pageantry involving rewards, but never expressed in a comparative way as in, "Jimmy got this, but look at you Billy, you only got this!" Your parents did that. It did not necessarily endear you to your brother or sister when the comparison was made.

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One Main Number and Multiple Incoming Lines

"We would like to have one main phone number and multiple phone lines for calling." Can a request like this to your phone company, be simpler than that?

You would be surprised to know how many different ways a phone company can set up your lines. And each solution has its own set of pros and cons.

Over-lines, hunt-groups, roll-over lines, pilot number, real number are the common terms here to be aware of.

Over-lines – There is one main number or pilot number which is the first line, and then there are over-lines or additional lines. Each line physically connected to your phone system to be able to provide you with multiple lines to dial out.

For example, if you need three lines coming into your office, then the request would be for one main number or pilot line and 2 over-lines or you can call it a one plus two over-line system.

If you need 4 lines coming in, then the request would be for 1 main or pilot line and 3 over-lines, ie one plus three over-line system.

Each of the over-lines are separate phone lines, with the same phone number attached to them ie your main or pilot phone number of your business.

The over-line system ensures that when your first line is busy, the next incoming call will ring on the next over-line, till all your lines are busy.

AND, more importantly, it will ensure that each of them will display your MAIN phone number as caller ID when you call out.

This is not the case with the hunt-group or multi-line system.

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What Is a PRI Line, What Are the Advantages and Limitations of PRI Circuits?

In an ISDN system, there are two types of services: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). While the first one is installed at home or small business organizations, the later one is for large organizations which have their own telephone exchange systems. There are number of B-channels and D-channels in the system which carries data, video, voice with several control and signaling information. But, what is Primary Rate Interface and how does it work?

What is PRI Line?

The Primary Rate Interface comprises of a 64 Kbps D-channels and 23 Kbps B-channels. Here, it uses T-1 line. It also consists of one D-channel and 30 Kbps B-channel, which use an E1 line. If a user accesses the Primary Rate Interface on a T-1 line, he can get internet speed up to 1.544 Mbps. On the other hand, an E1 line user can get services up to Mbps. PRI utilizes Q.931 protocol over D-channel.

There are some countries where this system is carried on a T-carrier system line while E-carrier line is available worldwide. The users of the system are directly connected with the telephone company’s central office.

Advantages of PRI Circuits

1. The service provider gives almost 500 numbers for each line. Therefore, it becomes easier for the outsiders to call the extension straight without going through the PBX Auto-attendant.

2. Through a PRI line, it is possible to have voice and data access. There are also some service providers which offer free data transmission for certain period of time.

3. Call hunting is also easy with a Primary Rate system. But for the analog trunks, the service provider needs to extend the facility and also include additional cost.

4. What are the other benefits of this system? It can be utilized for voice connectivity, video conferencing, data connectivity, faxing, etc. And all these can be done simultaneously.

5. This circuit is anytime better than the analog trunks as it is an end-to-end digital system.

6. Due to the fiber optic materials, the wire is far more redundant than analog trunks. Also, you will face less troubleshooting here than other systems.

7. Tapping your digital phone lines and listening to your conversation is almost impossible now.

8. You don’t have to wait long to start a call here.

9. As there are several service providers who comes with flexible plans, this system also become economical for small companies.

Limitations of PRI Circuits

1. If the minimum rental is less than the average value of calls in an analog system, then installing PRI circuit is not that much economical.

2. If you have to make international calls, this system is not cost-effective. You can choose SIP or ITSP services at lesser rate to make such calls.

3. You have to pay for Inter branch communication if you install this line. If you install VOIP systems, you can make inter branch communication over internet at much lower cost.

4. You can buy Primary Rate lines only if you buy those from your EPABX vendor.

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