Asterisk Vs Cisco – Avaya VOIP Telephone Systems

VoIP or Voice Over IP, the latest in wireless communication works by taking the phone call, changing from analog to digital signals and transmitting these signals over an IP network or broadband and finally terminating it on a PSTN. Call charges are greatly reduced using this technology. The advantage is that software emulating a phone can be loaded on your laptop thereby enabling you to access its services even while you travel.

VoIP uses SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), a peer-to-peer technology that allows computers to communicate with each other without having calls routed through some central station. Therefore, calling from one SIP enabled phone to another cuts call charges drastically.

The Asterisk System comes with an Asterisk server which manages things like teleconferencing, voice mails, queues and hold music. The hard phone is a digital phone that has an Ethernet jack to communicate with the server using the SIP protocol. They, including the wireless version, are not very expensive. The soft phone are implemented in software and can be attached to a PC. Asterisk runs predominantly on Linux, an open source operating system.

Cisco has telephony solutions that are network based and run on a router. They are scalable and work well in multi-user environments in mulitple locations. The UC500 suite is a bundle of services like router, switches, security, telephony and wireless functionality in a single device. This greatly reduces costs for a company which is planning on these services. The Cisco CallManager Express uses SIP to connect phones through the Internet and also has the features of UC 500 making it more viable for medium scale businesses. Additonal features are paging, intercom, ICMP and class of restrictions on a user’s calls.

Avaya IP Office uses IP technology to deliver voice and data communication, messaging and customer management over multiple locations with 2 to 300 people. It allows you to work from anywhere, host conferences, integrate applications, measure and improve customer satisfaction at the touch of a button. It is cost effective as it lowers long-distance calls, conferencing fees, supports remote workers and helps keep your business collaborated and up-to-date.

The three products can be compared based on the following few criteria:

• Number of extensions: Asterix can support upto 100 extensions while Cisco and Avaya can go upto 360 extensions thereby suporting large organizations as well. This improves the scalability and helps to reduce costs in the long run.

• Freeware: Asterisk is freeware and runs on a Linux server. This makes the telephony solution cheaper than either Cisco or Avaya which make extensive use of routers and switches for communication.

• Installation and maintenance: Asterisk is a programmer’s dream as it is open source and can be changed at his will. However, for an end-user, it may be a nightmare. Support and services are better with Cisco and Avaya which are established names in the industry.

The main thing going for Asterisk is its cost. However, it is not always advisable to look at the initial cost of things. Other criteria like scalability, integrating of one device with others already existing, interoperatability and long run costing should be considered while choosing one product over another.

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Evolution of Telephone – The Journey From the First Telephone to VoIP Phone

Nobody is ignorant of the fact that the first telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in March 1876. That is where the communications field of modern times takes its roots from.

This invention would have not collected much attention, which Bell's weak expectations said, but it was the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, where Brazil's Emperor Dom Pedro de Alcantara took notice of this rather interesting manmade invention. He could not help but be amazed by bell's substantial creativity, which reflected in his creation the telephone.

In the early days, telephone was only seen as a luxury of life rather than a commodity. It only gained more popularity as an essential medium of communication at the time when many corporate and government offices began to use it.

During the 1880's, when metallic circuits were introduced, they took over long distance communications. However, for a decade, its usage remained restricted to a certain class who could afford paying for the heavy calling expenses. Until in the 1890's, with the emergence of party line, it became convenient for people living in rural areas in particular to divide the cost of the line used by many.

Prior to 1891, calls were made by exchange operators, but until until a new system for direct dialing system. Then there was putting telephone to its best use in 1927, when the first transatlantic phone call was made with the help of radio waves. It was the through the time of First and Second World War, when telephone went through a major developmental period, all thanks to the huge expenditures made by the Defense Department for ensuring safer communication across. These series of advances also led to the creation of the first mobile telephone system, which easily connected mobile vehicles to phones using radio waves.

In 60's era, the transatlantic cables were introduced to facilitate for dialing international calls.

Neverheless, the largest shifts seen in the history of telephones was in 1962, when the first telephone satellite TelStar was launched. Telstar was a joint business venture between Bell and NASA for brining in a more advanced form of communication. This paved way for satellites revolving within the geosynchronous orbit to be used for making long distance calls directly without exceeding on the cable lines, not to mention suffering because of the repeated cable damage and repair pain.

Fiber optic cables were first introduced in 1977. By mid 80's, fiber optic cable took precedence over other modes of telephone transmission, because it could facilitate a higher number of calls with less interference, compared to its predecessor methods. It could transmit information more quickly to farther areas and strongly resisted any mishaps particularly lightning strikes. In short, it offered a number of advantages and safer than other modes. Owing to the benefits, these fiber optic cables are also began to be used for computers too.

After the US government relaxed the regulations on telephone service, AT & T met up to face a tough competition from MCI, Sprint and many other local companies. This paved way for fiber optic lines to be used vastly in every industry, even began to be used for natural gas pipelines and railroad tracks.

It was in 1973 when Dr. Martin Cooper belonging to Motorola Corporation created the first cellular telephone call using a portable handset, namely the Dyna-Tac. After it completed a successful test run, it was introduced in New York Public. It was in 1977 when the cell phone became popular among the people. Initially introduced models appeared slightly larger and commonly used by those who were used to stay in touch by two-way radio communication mode. At that time, one could not imagine that it was going to be used by everyone. Cellular phones functioned with small "cells" for service range, to increase the facility of handling more calls. Cell phones made it possible to attend an increased number of calls at a time in one area.

However, initially, the primary cellular services rather used analog system of technology, which functioned at 800 Megahertz incessantly. As the time went on, the industry increased the standard to 1850 MHz with PCS. In 1988, a committee, formerly Cellular Technology Industry Association, was formed to formulate guidelines and put on regulations for the cellular service providers and functioned for development and growth of the cell phone industry. Today, we have approximately 60 million cellular telephone customers, an overwhelming huge number for a service that only started working commercially merely thirty years back.

Today, we use digital cell / mobile phones, in place of analogue phones. The digital technology transfers data in form of "pulses". The benefit of digital signals is that they are rather more securely transmitted compared to its analog contenders, and it gives more efficient bandwidth and a higher quality of sound. You can even share videos and photos while surfing the internet. All at the same time integrated within your phones.

However, in digital technology there is a slight problem with coverage. For example, owing to three different technologies a cellular phone uses, in case you are using a TDMA (time-division multiple access) system but you move in an area, which caters to CDMA (code-division multiple access) digital coverage, then You may have to face technology problems.

There is a perfect solution for it and the united analog-digital technology that the cell phone providers are shifting to. This way you can get excellent great coverage for all types of communication, with high speed and uncompromising quality.

To talk about the first "audio conferencing" to be ever used could be the time when part lines had been introduced for the first time back in telephone's early days. Although, at that time, the only benefit people could seek from the part lines was the economic factor but there was a problem that a number of people in disimilar locations could pick up and talk on the same simultaneously, leading to an eavesdropping situation and zero Privacy element.

The idea of ​​calling a number of people, which was initially derived from part lines, was revived again but this time in a better and more private package. It had time limits and only to be accessed in times of need.

Following this notification, companies all over the world began to offer services, which coordinated a facility for conference calling for companies, giving them fixed rates, monthly fees or based on the number of calls made. This served fruitful as it saved traveling expenses and other calling expenditures. They provided a trained operator to enable connections between every participant on a dedicated line. This way, a group of people could easily communicate with one another at one time. The service providers offered affordable rates to their customers.

Sooner, many telephone-manufacturing companies sometimes Polycom, AT & T and Panasonic developed office telephone systems that allowed office users to invite a client, put them on hold and then dial up another party. This helped in building a multiple-connection set up for callers to communicate easily with more than two people at a time to discuss significant business deals.

Along came internet, which happens to be the best communication medium ever created through the history of mankind. The Internet paced up competition between phone service providers, particularly challenging the audio conferencing facility and the long distance calling cost. Neverheless, they have lowered their calling costs to a greater extent, yet the unbeatable broadband phone or internet phone is becoming everyone's favorite, beating its contender – the traditional telephone, because it is much cheaper and affordable.

Voip, which stands for "Voice Over Internet Protocol" is now the most popular mean of communication because it charges only for call, no regulatory taxes or hidden charges, like the charges put up by traditional phone companies. Voip phones or broadband phone use high-speed internet to function and let you enjoy the same quality of service offered by traditional phones. You can not only make calls with your voip phone but also the high-speed internet phone lets you enjoy services of high-speed data transfer services like data sharing, audio conferencing and video conferencing. With voip, you are guaranteed to save a lot on your calling and communication needs.

VoIP offers you audio conferencing facility to network with multiple groups or parties no matter what their geographical locations are. This enables the customers to connect with their clients spread worldwide and arrange for a virtual meeting online. Today, Voip calling solutions are being provided by Axvoice, Vonage, 8×8, Voxwire, Packet 8, TTCGlobalTalk and VoiceCafe among many others, giving an excellent quality of service.

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Telephone Systems – An Overview On Operating Principle

A Telephone system is a communication instrument that transmits any voice / sound signals to far by locations by converting these sound signals in waves and receives and reconverts the same waves into sound signals/ voice. The telephone network is extended universally so if you want to talk to someone, you simply need to pick up the telephone system and dial a few digits. You are instantly connected to that person and both of you can have a 2 way conversation.

Telephone systems were first introduced by Graham Bell over one hundred years ago, but it is still works on the same operating principle. To make a call, we need to first pick up the handset. This causes the telephone system to be connected to a routing network. By pressing the numbers present on the touch tone keypad / frequency generator, signals are passed down via phone line to the routing station. Here, each digit is identified as a unique combination of tone frequencies. The specific combination of digits causes a signal to be passed to other telephone systems causing it to ring. When that telephone is picked up, connection between the two telephone systems is achieved.

The ear piece acts as speaker where as mouthpiece acts as a microphone. Sound waves from the user’s voice cause vibration to a thin plastic disc present inside the telephone system. This causes change in the distance between the plastic disk and another metal disk resulting in a varying electric current which is passed through the phone lines. The receiver on the other phone picks up this electromagnet current. These magnets cause diaphragm to vibrate which produces the sound /voice that initiated the current. An amplifier in the receiver end makes it easier to hear. When one of the phones is hung up the electric current get broken resulting in dis-connection of the telephone systems.

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The Growing Demand For Mobile Phone Accessories

How sweet it is to be able to have your family picture as your mobile screen saver. Thanks to the new world of mobile phone accessories. They come in different forms, such as ear phone, hands-free kits, Bluetooth, cell phone cases, holsters, chargers, stickers, hand straps. These are available at all types of prices to suit everybody. A USB drive helps you attach your cell phone to computer system through which you can download your favorite songs and videos to your cell phone.

Cell phone has become one of the most used electronic items in the world today. But cell phones by themselves are not so attractive to buy, so mobile companies are trying to attract customers by providing them state of the art accessories. They actually enhance the functional capacity of the phone. This business has skyrocketed to meet the ever-growing demand of the customers. In fact, the accessories also help in the sales of the handsets. Their appearance is also enhanced by these accessories.

These accessories are really useful either for communication, videos, storing databases, music, gaming, or other purpose. It is also being used for internet browsing and even business documentation. It is even possible to be connected to the world from the very premises of your home. Day by day, the uses of a cell phone are increasing, and with it the demand for accessories is also increasing.

If you already own one, you will know how easy your life has become because of this technology. Mobile phone manufacturers are providing some high-end mobile phone with preloaded accessories as software attachment or as part of the offer with the mobile phones as hardware items to boost the sales. They are cashing in on this huge sales attraction.

The mobile phone manufacturers are also getting into the business of manufacturing accessories, and these are sold in various ranges in the open market. Not only this, the mobile phones are being manufactured in a way that it is technology-friendly and compatible to all kinds of phone accessories. Mobile phone accessories are becoming indispensable to the base product.

The main categories of accessories available are batteries, Bluetooth devices, cables, chargers, covers, hands free, MoPods and speakers.

These accessories can be bought online as well. So now you can buy mobile accessories from anywhere in the world while being in the comfort of your home. But choosing the right online store is a big challenge. Therefore, before buying any mobile phone accessories online, considering the following points can be helpful:

* Consider the prices of several online stores selling cell phones and their accessories to get the best deal.

* Check the payment options whether they have flexible payment option.

* See how fast they can deliver the product.

* Consider the safety and security of the payment options.

* See if the online store is offering great discounts on their products.

It is always a good idea to buy some accessory for your existing phone rather than replacing the phone itself. Today, cell phones and their add-on accessories are readily available everywhere but care must be taken when you buy these because the duplication has also increased manifold because of the massive demand.

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Phone Systems For Small Business – 8 Criteria For Evaluating an IP Phone System

Shoretel’s CEO, John Combs, presented a keynote address recently at IT Expo West, providing very relevant advice to IT managers and others buying a voice over IP (VOIP) phone system. He used the MAC iPhone as an analogy, to illustrate how new technology can quickly dominate an industry. In the case of a VOIP business phone system, IP technology is poised to dominate correspondingly over existing analog (TDM) systems.

VOIP telephone systems can greatly increase user adaption rates, leading to improved productivity in an organization. An IP phone system allows the collaborative and reach aspects of unified messaging technology. The VOIP telephone system generally includes features such as teleconferencing, unified messaging (voicemail in email), web collaboration, mobile integration (cell phones), presence (to locate employees quickly), instant messaging, video conferencing and business process integration (customer relationship management, sales, accounting, etc.).

What differentiates one vendor’s small business phone systems from another’s? Mr. Combs suggests a a very structured selection process when choosing office telephone systems with VOIP for business. He proposed 8 evaluation criteria to be used by the evaluation team making the choice of a new VOIP business phone system:

  1. Usability. There must be an onsite demonstration including the exact hardware to be deployed. It is often advisable to have two or more vendors demonstrate side-by-side, or on the other hand to install alternative prototypes at two separate company offices and then exchange systems and locations to find out which one was best.
  2. Reliability. What is the anticipated failure rate, based on actual deployed systems using Bellcore/Telecordia standards? Mr Combs pointed out that academic failure rates are not sufficient for confidence in deploying a new system. You don’t want to the the “guinea pig” for a vendor’s prototype or Beta testing.
  3. Availability. Make certain understand the impact of downtime on the business based on the planned configuration. Count the points of failure are there in the vendor’s configuration?
  4. Scalability. What are the costs should you need to double the planned configuration?
  5. Architecture. What methodology was used to design the system? Was it well thought out or technology patched together from disparate systems and conflicting architectures?
  6. Total Cost of Ownership. Most of the time upfront costs (hardware, network and implementation) amount to only 20% of the complete system expense over the system’s lifecycle. Day-to-day costs (training, move/add/change, system management, network and utilities) can amount to 80% over the system lifetime. What is the case with the systems under consideration?
  7. Vendor Financial Status. Make sure the vendor has a solid balance sheet, or be prepared for support issues should they encounter financial difficulty.
  8. Vendor References. Your team should contact their industry associates for information relevant to the vendors being considered Did they make a wise decision with this vendor? Do they know of other references? How do actual costs compare to vendor estimates? Is it easy for IT staff to support? What about any “raving fans?”

When evaluating to upgrade small business phone systems, the usual choice is a VOIP business phone system. A careful evaluation of each vendor’s offerings and in particular the presence of “raving fans” for any VOIP business phone system are critical in getting all the benefits of VOIP for business.

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Mobile Phone Tracking – Locate Anyone Anywhere by Cell Phone

Mobile phone tracking is a system that works to track the current position of a cell phone no matter where the owner is located. This technology allows a phone’s location to be uploaded to a website where friends and family members get to view the person’s last reported position. The tracking of anyone, anywhere through his or her mobile phone is made even easier and practical with free phone tracking systems.

In order to locate or track a phone by using this tracking system, it must emit a roaming signal that can be detected by a nearby tower which has a communication antenna. GSM localization which uses multi-lateration that is based on the strength of the phone signal will then determine the location of the cell phone to locate the user. Location based services that use mobile positioning will disclose the exact coordinates of the user.

An advanced free cellphone tracking system allows for a more accurate location in which the mobile phone is present and is able to produce an estimate distance to the base station. Approximation by interpolating signals that travel between the two antenna towers will then give a much accurate location. In urban areas, mobile phone tracking services can reach close to 50 meters as the mobile traffic and density of antenna towers are very high. However, mobile phones that are located in rural regions that are far from base stations will not be precisely located through the service.

The use of latest cellphones is more easily located by mobile phone tracking systems as they contain inbuilt phone tracker system which emits signals even when they are not in active calls. Estimation of the location of the mobile phone and its user is easy through comparison of relative signals and their strength from various antenna towers. With the help of roaming procedures, the location is estimated in a matter of seconds.

With the latest technology in the cellphones tracking front, you are now able to use it to ensure the security of your loved ones or for finding stolen or lost mobile phones.

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What If Your Immune System Stops Working?

Immunodeficiency disorders happen when one or more components of your immune system are missing or when the system is not working as supposed to be. Defects in one’s immune system can be congenital or acquired. Either way, having problems with the immune system permits harmful microorganisms to easily penetrate the body’s defenses and make anyone suffer various diseases.

Congenital Or Primary Type

If you are born with deficiencies in your immune system, you are said to be suffering from primary immunodeficiency. If you have the primary type of this disease, you may not be able to enjoy life like other people do. Your predisposition to contract all sorts of contagious diseases may start in your childhood days or it may not make its presence known until later in life. The following are two of the most common examples of inborn immunodeficiency disorder.

IgA Deficiency

IgA refers to your Immunoglobulin A which is basically a group of antibodies that are mainly found in your respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. These antibodies are largely in the form of fluids secreted in the areas mentioned and are often described as your body’s first line of defense against harmful invaders. You can also find these antibodies in your saliva and the tears in your eyes.

For people who have IgA deficiency, the body is not producing adequate amounts of this particular class of antibodies. Meaning, all harmful microorganisms may be allowed to enter your body with less or no opposition at all. Having this disorder will make you prone to most allergies, cold viruses, and other infections in the respiratory tract.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Also known as SCID, this immune system disorder is defined by a severe defect in the body’s production of T-cells. Your T-cells, basically, may be thought of as the Marines of your whole defense system; T-cells do not just provide a defensive wall but they are the elite fighting units that actually attack unwanted intruders in your body. Now, you can just imagine what will happen if your body has only a few of these soldiers; it will be totally impossible for your body to keep off infections.

A classic case of SCID has been experienced by a young boy in Texas who tried to live inside a sterilized plastic bubble to prevent microorganisms from getting inside his body. This boy even became a stuff of medical legend and has been known as the Bubble Boy, which later on paved the way for this disease to be referred to as the bubble boy disease.

Acquired Or Secondary Type

Most are born without any defects in their immune system. However, factors like malnutrition, severe infections or nasty side-effects from some medication may cause disorders in some people that can weaken the body’s immune system. This type of immunodeficiency may include the following.

HIV/AIDS

Everybody has heard about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. Slowly but surely, this disease leads to the total breakdown of the immune system. The problem is caused by a virus which can annihilate the number of T-cells, particularly the helper cells, in the body. Without the T-helper cells, your body will not be able to defend itself from all sorts of infection and other harmful organisms. You can contract HIV from careless or unprotected sexual intercourse and from using hypodermic or tattoo needles that are contaminated with the virus.

Immune Disorders Caused By Medication

Sometimes, secondary immune system disorders may be brought about by some medical treatments. Take the case of chemotherapy in patients with cancer; this process is known to wipe out not just cancerous cells, but healthy immune cells as well. Also, people who have undergone organ transplants need to take medicines that are designed to suppress the body’s resistance against the new organ; which can only mean withholding immune cells from performing their functions.

Indeed, the health of your immune system is very important for your own survival. So never take it for granted. To boost your body’s disease-fighting capabilities, you can take supplements like Immunitril. Visit http://www.immunitril.com/ for more details.

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Evolution of Telephone – The Journey From the First Telephone to VoIP Phone

Nobody is ignorant from the fact that the first telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in March 1876. That is where the telecommunications field of modern times takes its roots from.

This invention would perhaps not have gathered much attention, which Bell’s weak expectations said, but it was the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, where Brazil’s Emperor Dom Pedro de Alcantara took notice of this rather interesting manmade invention. He could not help but be amazed by bell’s profound creativity, which reflected in his creation the telephone.

In the early days, telephone was only seen as a luxury of life rather than a commodity. It only gained more popularity as an essential medium of communication at the time when many corporate and government offices began to use it.

During the 1880’s, when metallic circuits were introduced, they took over long distance communications. However, for a decade, its usage remained restricted to a certain class who could afford paying for the heavy calling expenses. Until in the 1890’s, with the emergence of party line, it became convenient for people living in rural areas in particular to divide the cost of the line used by many.

Prior to 1891, calls were made by exchange operators, but until a new system for direct dialing system. Then there it was putting telephone to its best use in 1927, when the first transatlantic phone call was made with the help of radio waves. It was the throughout the time of First and Second World War, when telephone went through a major developmental period, all thanks to the huge expenditures made by the Defense Department for ensuring safer communication across. These series of advancements also led to the creation of the first mobile telephone system, which easily connected mobile vehicles to phones using radio waves.

In 60’s era, the transatlantic cables were introduced to facilitate for dialing international calls.

Nevertheless, the biggest shifts seen in the history of telephones was in 1962, when the first telephone satellite TelStar was launched. Telstar was a joint business venture between Bell and NASA for brining in a more advanced form of communication. This paved way for satellites revolving within the geosynchronous orbit to be used for making long distance calls directly without relying on the cable lines, not to mention suffering because of the repeated cable damage and repair pain.

Fiber optic cables were first introduced in 1977. By mid 80’s, fiber optic cable took precedence over other modes of telephone transmission, because it could facilitate higher number of calls with lesser interference, compared to its predecessor methods. It could transmit information more quickly to farther areas and strongly resisted any mishaps particularly lightning strikes. In short, it offered a number of advantages and safer than other modes. Owing to the benefits, these fiber optic cables also began to be used for computers too.

After the US government relaxed the regulations on telephone service, AT&T met up to face a tough competition from MCI, Sprint and many other local companies. This paved way for fiber optic lines to be used vastly in every industry, even began to be used for natural gas pipelines and railroad tracks.

It was in 1973 when Dr. Martin Cooper belonging to Motorola Corporation created the first cellular telephone call using a portable handset, namely the Dyna-Tac. After it accomplished a successful test run, it was introduced in New York Public. It was in 1977 when the cell phone became popular among the people. Initially introduced models seemed slightly bigger and commonly used by those who were used to stay in touch by two-way radio communication mode. At that time, one could not imagine that it was going to be used by everyone. Cellular phones functioned with small “cells” for service range, to increase the facility of handling more calls. Cell phones made it possible to attend an increased number of calls at a time in one area.

However, initially, the primary cellular services rather used analog system of technology, which functioned at 800 Megahertz incessantly. As the time went on, the industry increased the standard to 1850 MHz with PCS. In 1988, a committee, namely Cellular Technology Industry Association, was formed to formulate guidelines and put on regulations for the cellular service providers and functioned for development and growth of the cell phone industry. Today, we have approximately over 60 million cellular telephone customers, an overwhelming huge number for a service that only started working commercially merely thirty years back.

Today, we use digital cell/mobile phones, in place of analogue phones. The digital technology transfers data in form of “pulses”. The benefit of digital signals is that they are rather more securely transmitted compared to its analog contenders, and it gives more efficient bandwidth and a higher quality of sound. You can even share videos and photos while surfing the internet. All at the same time integrated within your phones.

However, in digital technology there is a slight problem with coverage. For example, owing to three different technologies a cellular phone uses, in case you are using a TDMA (time-division multiple access) system but you move in an area, which caters to CDMA (code-division multiple access) digital coverage, then you might have to face technology problems.

There is a perfect solution for it and the united analog-digital technology that the cell phone providers are shifting to. This way you can get excellent great coverage for all types of communication, with high speed and uncompromising quality.

To talk about the first “audio conferencing” to be ever used could be the time when part lines had been introduced for the first time back in telephone’s early days. Although, at that time, the only benefit people could seek from the part lines was the economical factor but there was a problem that a number of people in dissimilar locations could pick up and talk on the same simultaneously, leading to an eavesdropping situation and zero privacy element.

The idea of calling a number of people, which was initially derived from part lines, was revived again but this time in a better and more private package. It had time limitations and only to be accessed in times of need.

Following this notion, companies all over the world began to offer services, which coordinated a facility for conference calling for companies, giving them fixed rates, monthly fees or based on the number of calls made. This served fruitful as it saved traveling expenses and other calling expenditures. They provided a trained operator to enable connections between every participant onto a dedicated line. This way, a group of people could easily communicate with one another all at one time. The service providers offered affordable rates to their customers.

Sooner, many telephone-manufacturing companies namely Polycom, AT&T and Panasonic developed office telephone systems that allowed office users to invite a client, put them on hold and then dial up another party. This helped in building a multiple-connection set up for callers to communicate easily with more than two people at a time to discuss significant business deals.

Along came internet, which happens to be the best communication medium ever created throughout the history of mankind. The Internet paced up the competition between phone service providers, particularly challenging the audio conferencing facility and the long distance calling cost. Nevertheless, they have lowered their calling costs to a greater extent, yet the unbeatable broadband phone or internet phone is becoming everyone’s favorite, beating its contender – the traditional telephone, because it is much cheaper and affordable.

Voip, which stands for “Voice Over Internet Protocol” is now the most popular mean of communication because it charges only for call, no regulatory taxes or hidden charges, like the charges put up by traditional phone companies. Voip phones or broadband phone use high-speed internet to function and let you enjoy the same quality of service offered by traditional phones. You can not only make calls with your voip phone but also the high-speed internet phone lets you enjoy services of high-speed data transfer services like data sharing, audio conferencing and video conferencing. With voip, you are guaranteed to save a lot on your calling and communication needs.

VoIP offers you audio conferencing facility to network with multiple groups or parties no matter what their geographical locations are. This enables the customers to connect with their clients spread worldwide and arrange for a virtual meeting online. Today, Voip calling solutions are being provided by Axvoice, Vonage, 8×8, Voxwire, Packet 8, TTCGlobalTalk and VoiceCafe among many others, giving an excellent quality of service.

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Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 1)

To those who really want to be perfect in computer operation and understanding, this article which will come in 'parts' will lead you gently from the basics of computer to the complex usage of the software in the system. Before one starts using the programs in the system, he or she wants understand the system components and their usage. And so I wish to let you know of the meaning of computer and probably the generations of computer.

Definition of a Computer System
Computer is defined in so many ways by so many people based on their field of specialization. A computer is a set of interrelated and interactive devices, which uses electronic components to perform a prefefined operation with accuracy. But generally, a computer system may simply be defined as an electronic device, which is capable of accepting data as input, process the data, store the data and provide a result as output in human readable form. The four basic parts of a computer are Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and System unit.

A Brief History of Computer
Computer history and development is always traced to Charles Babbage, the Father of computers and Lady Ada Lovelace, the Mother of Programming. The computer we have come to use today perfectly without any much stress and difficulty was not invented the way we have seen but passed through series of processes and stages. There exist five generations of computer as briefly discussed below:

First Generation Computer (The Vacuum Tube Technology)
This generation of computers consists of computers developed between 1944 and 1959. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computers) and UNIVAC 1 and 11 are first generation computers. This generation of computers were very bulky, dissipates a lot of heat, some were very heavy, weighing up to 200 tons. Because of the heat, they needed special cooling system. The characteristic technology of this generation was the use of vacuum tubes as the basic building blocks for the logic parts of the computers. In terms of speed they were very slow compared with computers of later generations.

Second Generation Computer (The Transistor Technology)
The technology, which gave the distinguishing characteristics of the second-generation computers, was the transistor technology. Although this device was developed in 1948 in Bell Telephone Laboratories, and was used largely in the electronic world, it was not until 1959 that it was introduced in the manufacture of computers. These transistors replaced the bulky vacuum tubes. In addition to doing everything that the vacuum tube could do, the transistors would do so with greater reliability, with less power requirement, generate less heat, less cost to manufacture and much smaller in size. The computers developed between 1959 and 1964 are called the second-generation computers. Examples: IBM 7030, 7070, 7090, 7094, Boroughs 200 series, UNIVAC III, Honey-well 800 etc. The development of high level programming languages ​​like FORTRAN and COBOL was another innovation bought by the second-generation computers and were 10 times faster than the first.

Third Generation Computers (Integrated Circuit Technology)
Between 1964 and 1971, the third generation computers were developed. It was the technology of integrated circuits that opened the gates to the third generation computers. In fact we can say that the integrated circuit technology really revolutionized the computer technology itself. Integrated circuits are attached to a small piece of silicon chip. This technology cam progressively from Small Scale Integration (SSI), which contained about twenty interconnected transistors and diodes, through the Medium Scale Integration (MSI) which had over hundred interconnected transistors on a single chip, to Large Scale Integration (LSI) of over tens Of thousand of transistors and diodes on a single chip. The achievements of the Integrated circuit technology led to even faster, more reliable, cheap and small-sized computers, which powers were multiple of those of the earlier generations. In deed, this generation of computers wave birth to the mini computers, which power of operation was more than the early generation, greater reliability and speed, yet was far less in size and in cost. They could do hundred times as many calculations per second and hundred times faster than their second-generation counterparts could. Examples: IBM 31360 – 31370 series, CDC 6600, 7600, Boroughs B5000 and PDP II series.

The Fourth Generation Computers (VLSIC Micro Technology
The very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSIC), made possible by the micro technology of the period 1971-1982 ushered in the fourth generation of computers. VLSIC has between 5,000 and 50,000 gates (transistors), upon which micro-processors were built. The effect of this technology was smaller and smaller but more and more powerful computers which speed and reliability trivialized those of the earlier generations. This era also produced the micro-computers that could do the job of first generation large computers with thousands of times faster speed and affordable prices even by individual. This generation also produced a wide variety of software packages like word processing packages, graphics, games, spreadsheet packages and database management systems. Networking capabilities were also enhanced in this era. Examples of the fourth generation computers include the IBM 3033, HP 3000 mini computers, Apple II, Boroughs B7700.

Fifth Generation Computers (Era of Artificial Intelligence)
The technology of this generation of computers is characterized by Super Large Scale Integration (ULSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), parallel processing, Artificial Intelligence, Speech Processing, Pattern Recognition and Expert System. The distinguishing characteristics of this generation of computer are their tremendous speed and power. Continuous miniaturization of computers is the order of the day, newer, smaller, more powerful computers are seen day by day. Powerful microcomputers have today dwarfed the capacity of the older days mainframe. Pentium II mother board with clock speed higher than 300 MHz and hard disk storage space over 20 Gigabytes with unbelievable capabilities, are now affordable by even low income earners. Networking, ranging from local, wide area to Iwets are the common features of this generation of computers and has reduced the whole world into a global village.

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The True Definition of Communication

The above title may seem elementary; however, I assure you that it is not. The fact is that most people do not communicate effectively at all; hence, they do not truly grasp the definition of communication.

The goal of this article is to provide you with a more in-depth definition and understanding of the same. The objective in doing this is to help you communicate more effectively by employing the correct tools and/or resources.

By definition, to communicate means the mutual giving and/or exchange of information and/or ideas. In this vein then, effective communication is to ensure that mutually given and/or exchanged information and/or ideas or not only clearly conveyed but also acutely understood by all parties involved in the circle of the communication.

Simply put, you are responsible for what you say and accountable for your actions therein. This is the ideal and pinnacle of effective communication.

As one of my teachers puts it, and I truly have come to experience and believe, “The quality of your communication equals the quality of your life.”

To the degree that you can convey your messages and understand yours and others viewpoints, the results you achieve will mirror the level of that clarity. As with diamonds – not all stones are made equally pure.

To this end, it is important that you understand the true meaning of communicating effectively and to do that it is vital that you first have an in-depth understanding of the true definition of communication.

First, let’s understand that we spend about 75% or more of our waking hours doing these 4 things: reading, writing, speaking and listening. All of these are forms of communication.

Let’s define what it means to communicate effectively through these methods.

As it pertains to writing or speaking, there are certain things of which you must be aware of and take responsibility for when you are the initiator in these instances.

First, you have to endeavor to take full responsibility for what you write or say and also the clarity of these communications. This means that if the message within is misconstrued, you are not to blame the recipient(s) of the message but instead, accept the burden that you are the one charged with ensuring the message is clear. Surely you cannot be expected to think for someone else or to know that what you say will penetrate them the way you wish it to; however, you can take the position of humility and simply rephrase or ask for clarification on how you might better present your message so that the recipient(s) will get the picture you are trying to paint.

The point is to take full responsibility for conveying your message clearly and rather than simply doing the way you like to read or hear it – focus on the ones for whom the message is intended. Your goal must be to make sure they understand because it is about them and not you.

Second, if there should be anything expected from the recipient(s) of your message, it is your responsibility to let them know at some point in your communication. In other words, you must provide the call-to-action. If you don’t, you cannot then be upset or frustrated when they do not respond or reply as you might have expected.

Here’s a quick guideline to follow when you are the initiator of communication:

  1. Tell them what you are going to tell them
  2. Tell them
  3. Tell them what you told them

This method of conveying your message ensures that much more people will understand your message much more quickly and fully.

As it pertains to reading or listening, there are certain things of which you must be aware of and take responsibility for when you are the recipient in these instances.

First, you must be willing to read or listen without pre-conceived notions. I realize that this may be very difficult in some instances; however, the practice will certainly increase the efficacy of your communications. Individuals who truly understand the definition of communication practice these relentlessly.

As the recipient of any communication our ultimate goal must remain to be that we are open, willing and only seeking true understanding of what is being read or said. Only then do we formulate our opinions, feedback or advice depending on what is being asked or stated. We read and listen genuinely so that we can respond in a genuine and authentic manner.

Second, you must remain accountable to any call-to-action once you have agreed to it. This is how the circle of communication is completed and effective; it is only when all involved parties accept responsibility and remain accountable to the charge therein.

There is no question that you can immediately improve the efficacy of your communications once you begin to put these into practice. This is the true definition of communication.

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