Mobile Phone – A Necessity or an Addiction?

Oh! This would be a very typical question in this current generation. I would tell that it has become addiction rather than necessity, especially for young people and children. Though mobile phones are initially used as a better way of communication, but it started to take an essential part in human’s life. Definitely, it has given us many dramatic benefits and allowed to move forward along with technology. This technological development caused many upgrades to traditional phones that were used before. Of course, this development can be one of the reason for mobile phone addiction, than a necessity.

Cell phones are one of the major technological instrument that is used more often. Initially, it was the instrument that was available to only a few people and today 9 out of 10 people own a cell phone including school going children. It is acceptable that it provides a better mode of communication, saves time, helps manage finances on the move, cheaper and is hugely convenient. But with these pros that are a part of necessity, there are few cons that make it as an addiction. Mobile phones should be an essential part of your life, but to should control your life. Until it is maintained as essential part it is a necessity, once it starts to control your life then you are in trouble of addiction. Mobile phone addiction can lead to severe distress and can result in severe physical problems which can cause permanent damage.

Points to remember to get rid of addiction and medical problems

• Limit your usage of cell phone. Set particular time at which you should check notifications received. If possible, try to customize notifications.

• Delete unnecessary apps from your phone like social media apps as there are not that much essential.

• Avoid usage of phone while in bed. Try not to use a mobile phone at least one hour before going to bed.

• Instead of using a smart phone, better switch back to traditional phones which are always the best choice.

• Get into the real world and try to be a part of human life. Start your conversation directly rather than through texting or calling.

• Usage of headset or speaker is better as it can avoid radiation.

• Children should not be allowed to use a mobile phone, instead engage them in outdoor activities.

Prevention is always better than getting cured. So try to control yourself with mobile phone usage and set some time limit to have a healthy relationship with mobile phones.

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What is a PABX and How Does it Work?

The acronym PABX stands for Private Automatic Branch Exchange, which is basically just another term for a telephone system, also known as a switchboard. These units are usually used as an internal telephone system in offices.

PABX systems will often have a lot of internal lines connecting to one main switchboard. The reason that the word branch is referred to in the term, is because there are many different mediums connected to a PABX system, connecting all aspects of the system within the business together. PABX systems are incredibly complex machines in that they can be used as telephones, modems and fax machines, and can be used for employees to communicate internally.

How a PABX essentially works is that it is a modem which acts as the central control station. Whenever a new call comes in, it is routed through this control station. Since the PABX has been assigned to special codes per each phone number within in the company, or each extension if you will, the call is going to be directed to the correct place using that assigned code. A PABX can also be programmed so that it greets each caller with an automated message before the call goes through to the assigned line. With regards to the fax function, you can program a line that goes through from the central control station to the fax machine. The machine can also be programmed to go to numerous fax machines.

PABX machines are now being modernised in that they can now be controlled by a computer system which tracks all incoming and outgoing calls. This computer system can be personalised in that it limits who makes calls to certain networks. It is also a very good way of keeping track of employees’ private telephone usage at work.

PABX machines are excellent for businesses because they can be used as auto attendants. By doing this the call will be handled to a certain extent even if there is no-one to answer the call. In this respect, PABX systems are highly effective for large businesses that receive a lot of calls. PABXs are lovely office machines as they have a wide range of different functions besides the ones mentioned above. PABX systems can be used to conduct conference calls, which is incredibly useful if business people do not have time to meet for a face to face meeting. This is very helpful for international clients that can only be met with telephonically.

In conclusion it can easily be seen that a PABX can be of great use to a business. There are many telecommunications companies that sell PABX systems and offer special deals. Some of these deals include actually renting the unit for your company and paying a monthly fee to use it. PABX systems can be quite expensive, and therefore there are packages available which will allow the company to pay a monthly fee to pay off their PABX system. With regards to what it is offering your company in respect to communications and professionalism, the cost can be justified!

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The Teacher As Disciplinarian: Ten Ideas That Really Work!

Ten Ideas You Can Try Right Away

"Discipline is not the Enemy of Enthusiasm!"

– Morgan Freeman as Joe Clark

When it comes to Discipline in the schools, there are many well-publicized and well-marked "systems". People sometimes get carried away with systems, or programs, structures, textbooks, etc., arguing passionately, for example, that block scheduling is better than traditional scheduling, or integrated math is better than traditional math, or whole language is better than phonics, Or this discipline system is better than that discipline system. Similarly, real estate agents will include the name of various school districts in their advertisement for a particular home based on how beautiful the district's buildings are.

The focus, wrongly, is almost always placed on things, and not people. The truth of the matter is, and I'll wait while you etch it in stone, my system will do better than your system if my people believe in our system and are passionately committed to its success. So when you hear the arguments, ad nauseum, for this system over that system in the schools, know that it is not the "thing" that caused the success, but the caring and passionate people working within the system.

The rules of golf, my friends, state that you are allowed to have 14 clubs in your bag. In the "golf course" of life in the schools, do you remember the teacher who only had a "driver" in his or her bag?

As we approach the topic of School Discipline, we must begin with the a priori acknowledgment that the American Juvenile Justice System is built on a rehabilitative model. This starts with the understanding that kids- you were a kid too, remember- are not perfect, that they will make mistakes, and that it is our duty as grownups to help them acquire the social skills needed to function as a productive individuals in society . If the Juvenile Justice system is set up this way, then how much more so must the school disciplinary approach be one that attempts to assist young people so that they improve their inappropriate behavior and become productive individuals? Naturally, this means that kids are expected to get second and third chances, and some attempts at modifying behavior may take several years.

If the people who work in the schools were able to actually "fly the plane" in all respects, there would be no "Zero Tolerance" policies, either, and you would not read about kindergartens kids getting expelled for having a nail file, or Because they cave a member of the opposite sex a hug. These coward politicians love to show how tough they are passing by legislation to expel kindergarten children for hugging somebody or having a pocket knife. Media people, please listen: No real educator would ever come up with a policy like that- even criminals get three strikes- the one strike baseball game was concocted by politicians trying to get votes, not the educators you criticize when this tragedy occurs!

In the Broadway Show Bye Bye Birdie, Paul Lynde, bemoaning the behavior of teenagers "today" (circa 1960) sings in one of the songs this phrase- posed as a question … "Why can not we be like we were, Perfect in every way … what's the matter with kids today, etc.? " A school I attended as a child had this quote on the wall by John D. Rockefeller … "What I am to be, I am now becoming." So, everyone listen carefully … The kids you have right now or are going to have when you are out there teaching have not, unlike you, attained to perfection yet !!! However, throughout through your efforts, patience, and rehabilitation strategies, they may get a few steps closer to the target- but they are not there just yet. So you will have discipline problems.

There are still teachers around who make kids stand in the corner and hold a dictionary in their outstretched arms or have someone write the dictionary, or "I must not talk in class" 500 times. We have all heard the horror stories of actions taken by teachers that do nothing but guarantee that the student will continue to do the wrong thing- often with greater enthusiasm. Do not forget the line from Bye Bye Birdie … they are not perfect yet like you! Remember also that we are not selling a system in this book. You can buy books and take courses. Our purpose in this chapter is to give you a variety of tools- more like 14 clubs for your diplomatic "golf bag" if you will. These are strategies that have a high degree of success and can effect quick change.

PROACTIVE vs. REACTIVE

1. Start With a Positive …

Very few kids are discriminate problems the first day of school or the first week of school. You probably already have an idea about the reputation of most of your students because the grapevine has informed you. The kids that have the potential to have problems have parents who usually are also aware that their child is a problem because that same child is a problem at home. So when these parents come to school angry at you the teacher, it's really a case of misplaced aggression because it is their kid who is driving them over the edge. These same parents have literally beaten on the telephone to me when they received good news about their child from the people at school- because it never happened before this. What's the message for you? While it's still early in the year- before the problems have characterized themselves, look for something positive that these potential problem individuals are doing and contact the parents to tell them the good thing that their child was doing.

Later, you will need the help of these parents to help change their child's behavior and they will remember this phone call and view you as a nice person- a fair person- maybe the first person in the school district who has ever said something nice about Their child. When you call later, you begin by saying … "Hi Mrs. Smith." This is Mr. Jones from the school. Mom will say that yes, she remembers you. You then say, "I need your help with something." Then you explain the discipline problem that her daughter is involved with and ask her if she could get involved at home and works, working together as a team, you and Mom can help the child to improve this problem she is now having. Most of the time, the parents will go out of their way to help you. They will also remember the child that you actually said something nice about them and we want to keep this nice teacher on our side- he's a friend. This potential problem child may start acting better anyway because he realizes that you also make good comments, not just negative ones like everyone else. This is an example of a teacher being PROACTIVE.

2. The Unknown Time-Out

Although this strategy works best with youngger students, used sparingly, it will also be equally effective with high school students. Make a plan with one of the secretaries, the Athletic Director, the Principal in a smaller school, or some other person- sometimes the Librarian, the Nurse, Custodian, etc. You can arrange multiple destinations for the Unknown Time-Out maneuver. When you have one or more particularly difficult students or ones that start well but get mixed up in any of the commotion that occurs in class, you call one of the students up to you desk, hand him a colored envelope that has something in it with The name of the person the envelope is going to on it. You tell the student to take this envelope to the person and wait for a response and then bring the response back.

When the recipient of the envelope sees that particular student or that colored envelope, he or she knows what is going on and tells the student to sit in the waiting area while they get the answer ready. Now they take 10 minutes to prepare the response, give it to the student and tell the student to take it back to you. This student just got a "Time-Out" lasting period 15 minutes without knowing it. This Proactive strategy kept the student from being yelled at again for what would have been his inevitable misbehavior, he has done something that seemed to be responsible, and so you the teacher commented on his reliability and thank him. The anticipated daily problem never occurred in the first place. In this process, the envelope, not the student, can be the indicator, so more than one teacher and additional students can be involved in this process. It is unlucky that the students- even high school students, will ever catch on to this strategy.

3. Inviting the Principal to Provide the Positive

If you had the pleasure to attend a Catholic Elementary School in the mid 50's, you may remember this- ruefully, I do. The report cards were distributed every 6 weeks, so every 6 weeks, the priest would come into class on a Friday to be involved in the process of handing out the report cards to 65 or so students in the class. As the Priest cave out the report cards, he always added a moment or two of editorializing. To this day, I have bad dreams about him saying … "Daniel. Hmmm. Let's see … My goodness, I know your Mother … The Poor Woman will be broken-hearted when she sees this awful report card. " Of course, everyone is sitting all prim and proper with their hands folded, but your buddies are looking at you and silently making faces and laughing all the while. All of this had quite the dramatic effect.

What's the message for you? DO NOT INVITE ANYONE IN FOR A NEGATIVE !!! But, invite the principal in and when he is there, publicly acknowledge the student by saying something like … "By the way Dr. Stevens (The Principal) Billy here has been one of my most improved students this report period- he is Doing some very nice work! " – Or, "Billy, why do not you show Dr. Stevens your excellent Social Studies project?" Billy has been doing some excellent work laately Dr. Stevens! The principal knows that this is his cue to congratulate the child and talk more about how nice it is to see students behaving this way, etc. This is another very proactive way to reinforce any positive behavior being shown by a student who does not show it that often.

4. The Sandwich Technique

The Sandwich Technique comes to us from the world of sports psychology and has been an effective tool for modifying behavior and encouraging people for over 30 years. It has application to almost every area of ​​human endeavor- in fact, you can even use it with your spouse. It begins by getting a person's attention by saying something positive. We say this because, for the most part, whether you are a spouse, an athlete, or a misbehaving child, your ears tend to close when you sense that a negative comment is coming your way- we all tend to tune this stuff out. So we get people's attention by saying something positive first- the ears perk up. The positive is followed by what we really wanted to say- the criticism or negative and any diplomatic action that might be occurring. It is followed by a final upbeat and positive comment. Thus the negative is the Peanut Butter and Jelly, and the positive in front and at the end are the two pieces of white bread.

We'll leave it to you how best to apply it in other walks of life, but consider how it can be used in the school setting by looking at the following hypothetical:

Johnny misbehaved in you class again today. He's actually an intelligent individual who simply is not working to the best of his ability. He has shown flashes of brilliance, but for the most part, is usually at the center of any commotion that goes on in class-he's been turning in some sloppy work just as well. Write a script of what you would say to Johnny making sure to apply the Sandwich Technique.

It might go like this: Johnny, you know that I like you- you and I have developed a pretty good friendship over the last couple of months have not we? That's why I am surprised that it is you I have to talk to so much. I have looked at your test scores and I have seen some of your work and it is excellent- you have the ability to be one of my bright students. Here's the problem, though … this is the fourth time in a row that you have turned in such sloppy work. So I am going to just keep giving it back to you till you do it correctly, and I do not care if it takes you a month to do it correctly. You will have to come in after school to redo the work, Also, if you do not change the quality of your work, then I am going to have Mom and Dad come in, and you know what your father said he would do if I Call him about you, do not you? What do you think would be a good way to fix this problem? (Avoiding the Yes-No question) All right. Let's get back to work, but I want you to know, I think you are a sharp kid, and I was just talking about you in a good way to Dr, Stevens. So let's start doing the work I know you are capable of. Etc. "

5. Divide and Conquer

In this situation, two students are a constant disruption in class. Take one of the students and treat him in a way that is a little less strident than the other. This can be done by rewarding one of the students for doing something right and making it seem as though he is not the real trouble maker in all of these class problems- it's the other guy. The second person will not stay too friendly with the first person, and the first person will begin to distance himself from the second person. You say to the first student, "You know Billy, I look at you as one of my better students and I do not think of you as a troublemaker like some students seem to be in this class. To improve this problem? (Again, not a yes-no) Following the private discussion, you move Billy making sure to explain to him that you want to get him away from the problems so he can do good work and not be bothered all the Time The partners in crime will not be so friendly with each other after you take this action.

6. The Phone Call From Class

Signal for the misbehaving child to join you in the hallway. Tell the child that you have your cell phone "right here in your hand", and if you ever see this kind of behavior again, you are going to call his or her Mom at her place of work right here from class and the child is Going to have to explain to her Mom the reason why the call is being made. The teacher then asks the student how happy he thinks his Mom is going to be to receive such a phone call from school when she is working? When he replies, "Not very happy", say, "Right, not very happy, so I expect to see some very quick improvement in your behavior- got that Billy? The next day, or for the next few weeks or so, if Billy is acting out, the teacher will surely holds the phone up and looks at it and then looks back to Billy. Will have on the other students, notably potential problem individuals when they find out that someone had to actually call his or her mother from class!

7. The Letter in the Drawer

Let's say that a child uses foul language in you class. First you tell him that this kind of language is not appropriate for class and that you and he are going to have to talk about this after class. Quietly, without any overreaction and typically after class, although there may be occasion to use this technique within the earshot of classmates, you tell the student the following: You are really surprised that a person like him would be speaking like that. You then tell him to write down what he said on a piece of paper. Make sure all of the words and details are included in the writing. Then, with a flourish, you place the writing in a business envelope and put a stamp on it and tell the student that normally, this would go directly into the mail with a phone call to let Mom know it is coming. Also, you dramatically write out a disciplinary referral.

Then you may tell the student that you are going to give him a detention for his behavior, but since you the teacher are such a nice person, you are going to keep this letter and the referral in your desk for mow. If this behavior ever occurs again though, both of these items are being sent along with a second mailing for the additional liability. Then you tell the student that this will stay in your desk till the end of the marking period at which time you will dispose of it if he, the child, continues to behave properly. Like the technique involving the cell phone, if the child is starting to misbehave a few days letter, you can point to the letter or the referral as a silent reminder. The child will get the point and probably appreciate your kindness.

8. Invite Mom to come in

This is a great technique for improving everyone's behavior because one visit to your class by someone's Mom who sits right next to her usually misbehaving child for one or more periods and everyone will have because they will fear that they might be next. Kids would rather have root canal than have Mom come in to sit next to them for an entire period or several periods. The process works like this: You make an effort ahead of time to establish a good working relationship with the Moms of some of your most significant problem individuals. You call Mom and invite her in because Junior is misbehaving. Mom comes to class and sits right next to her child and can remain for one or more days. Nobody wants to end this humiliation. Do it just once and many of your discipline problems will be over. The next day after the visitor leaves, the teacher can say … "Well, you saw a parent in here to visit because there were some problems I wanted her to see … who's next?" Do not expect any hands !!!

9. Involve the Guidance Counselor

Without fail, you will find guidance counsel more than happy to assist you in dealing with a student experiencing problems because it gives them the opportunity to do what they went to school to learn how to do. This is important to guidance counselers because, in the present national testing zeitgeist, they have all too often become the de facto assessment coordinators for their school. They have less time to actually counsel children because much of their time is being spent checking bubble sheets, counting booklets, and filling out forms for the state as well as sifting through mountains of paperwork related to special education, for example. As a teacher who sees the same students on a daily basis, you know which students have the most pressing issues related to discipline and which ones would profit most from a visit with the counselor as opposed to a visit with the Principal or Dean of Students. Not every matter needs to go to the principal.

On the other hand, you are out there amidst the masses and you hear various stories about kids regarding things that are happening in their lives. Sometimes you have established enough of a rapport with a student that he or she shares it with you himself. Once a student was talking to me about where she was going for the holidays and matter of actually told me that she and her two sisters are from 3 different fathers and they would be going to see all of the fathers as well as the related grandparents, And even though one of the fathers used to "beat my Mom up", things are pretty good around the holidays as long as he does not get too drunk, etc. The child acted as though this was completely normal, and although she was a discipline problem now and then, after hearing this story, I looked at her much differently. I realized quickly that this was something that should involve the guidance counselor.

Also remember that kids spend more time around the people in school than the people at home, so you will often know immediately when a kid just does not look right which might be an indicator of sexual abuse, drug use, eating disorders, pregnancy, self Abuse, etc. Maybe the grapevine knows about a death, a loss of a job, marital unrest, etc. You are the first line of defense in this process. The counselor has all of the right contacts and phone numbers of professionals that she can bring into the process. When a kid who was never a discipline problem starts to become one, or his work starts to take a negative turn, pay attention and do not just turn directly to the discipline code page in the student handbook. You and the counselor, working together, can be a great force for changing a kid's life- and the matter never has to get to the discipline office. Do not be upset, however, if after the counselor gets involved, he or she is unable to share all information about the child with you. There are some issues with Confidentiality involved, so maybe all you will hear is that "The matter is being taken care of." That may be all you are able to find out.

10. Careful About Examples

Do you remember the movie Home Alone? In it, Mc Cauley Culkin, the child who was left behind is talking to the old man who used to scare him. They are sitting in a church and the kid tells the old man that a certain third grader got "nailed" when kids found out that he wore dinosaur pajamas. If you are not careful about certain examples you speak about to misbehaving kids, you might get somebody "nailed". To clarify, if you had brothers or sisters, do you ever remember hearing this from either of your parents, "Why can not you be more like your brother who always makes the honor roll- he always does all of his work so neatly!

If, as a teacher, you make an example like this by saying, "Why can not you people in the back turn in neat work like Jimmy here- he is such a wonderful student?" … … you may be insuring that poor Jimmy is going to get "Nailed". The world of kids is difficult enough, do not put someone in peril because he or she is a model student. You can still have pageantry involving rewards, but never expressed in a comparative way as in, "Jimmy got this, but look at you Billy, you only got this!" Your parents did that. It did not necessarily endear you to your brother or sister when the comparison was made.

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One Main Number and Multiple Incoming Lines

"We would like to have one main phone number and multiple phone lines for calling." Can a request like this to your phone company, be simpler than that?

You would be surprised to know how many different ways a phone company can set up your lines. And each solution has its own set of pros and cons.

Over-lines, hunt-groups, roll-over lines, pilot number, real number are the common terms here to be aware of.

Over-lines – There is one main number or pilot number which is the first line, and then there are over-lines or additional lines. Each line physically connected to your phone system to be able to provide you with multiple lines to dial out.

For example, if you need three lines coming into your office, then the request would be for one main number or pilot line and 2 over-lines or you can call it a one plus two over-line system.

If you need 4 lines coming in, then the request would be for 1 main or pilot line and 3 over-lines, ie one plus three over-line system.

Each of the over-lines are separate phone lines, with the same phone number attached to them ie your main or pilot phone number of your business.

The over-line system ensures that when your first line is busy, the next incoming call will ring on the next over-line, till all your lines are busy.

AND, more importantly, it will ensure that each of them will display your MAIN phone number as caller ID when you call out.

This is not the case with the hunt-group or multi-line system.

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What Is a PRI Line, What Are the Advantages and Limitations of PRI Circuits?

In an ISDN system, there are two types of services: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). While the first one is installed at home or small business organizations, the later one is for large organizations which have their own telephone exchange systems. There are number of B-channels and D-channels in the system which carries data, video, voice with several control and signaling information. But, what is Primary Rate Interface and how does it work?

What is PRI Line?

The Primary Rate Interface comprises of a 64 Kbps D-channels and 23 Kbps B-channels. Here, it uses T-1 line. It also consists of one D-channel and 30 Kbps B-channel, which use an E1 line. If a user accesses the Primary Rate Interface on a T-1 line, he can get internet speed up to 1.544 Mbps. On the other hand, an E1 line user can get services up to Mbps. PRI utilizes Q.931 protocol over D-channel.

There are some countries where this system is carried on a T-carrier system line while E-carrier line is available worldwide. The users of the system are directly connected with the telephone company’s central office.

Advantages of PRI Circuits

1. The service provider gives almost 500 numbers for each line. Therefore, it becomes easier for the outsiders to call the extension straight without going through the PBX Auto-attendant.

2. Through a PRI line, it is possible to have voice and data access. There are also some service providers which offer free data transmission for certain period of time.

3. Call hunting is also easy with a Primary Rate system. But for the analog trunks, the service provider needs to extend the facility and also include additional cost.

4. What are the other benefits of this system? It can be utilized for voice connectivity, video conferencing, data connectivity, faxing, etc. And all these can be done simultaneously.

5. This circuit is anytime better than the analog trunks as it is an end-to-end digital system.

6. Due to the fiber optic materials, the wire is far more redundant than analog trunks. Also, you will face less troubleshooting here than other systems.

7. Tapping your digital phone lines and listening to your conversation is almost impossible now.

8. You don’t have to wait long to start a call here.

9. As there are several service providers who comes with flexible plans, this system also become economical for small companies.

Limitations of PRI Circuits

1. If the minimum rental is less than the average value of calls in an analog system, then installing PRI circuit is not that much economical.

2. If you have to make international calls, this system is not cost-effective. You can choose SIP or ITSP services at lesser rate to make such calls.

3. You have to pay for Inter branch communication if you install this line. If you install VOIP systems, you can make inter branch communication over internet at much lower cost.

4. You can buy Primary Rate lines only if you buy those from your EPABX vendor.

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7 Essential Elements For Creating a Filing System

I know… you probably think of filing as the most boring job in the world, and there are probably a 101 other thing that you would prefer to do instead. However, as a solo business owner, it is down to you to do the filing and stay organized. As a result this is one of the areas that a lot of solo business owners find overwhelming – they simply do not know where to start, or how to systemize their business.

Papers here; papers there; papers everywhere!

The more piles of paper there are, the more overwhelmed they feel!

Creating and maintaining a filing system is the very foundation that your business is built on, so this is the first system you need to put in place – an efficient and effective filing system. And one that is simple to use too!

With a proper filing system in place you will very quickly and easily be able to find the information you need, when you need it.

Let me share with you below my 7 easy steps for creating your ideal filing system:

1. Determine your storage needs. Whether you decide to opt for a plastic filing crate, or a dedicated filing cabinet, one thing you need to keep in mind that you will need TWICE as much space as you think you’ll need.

2. Decide how you naturally look for information. This will determine what your filing system will look like, and how you will set up your files. For example are you a person who thinks in alphabetical terms, or does categorization serve you better? Remember – this is YOUR filing system so you need to do what works for YOU.

3. Categorize your filing drawers/crates. For example if you have a two-drawer filing cabinet, use the top drawer for business files and the bottom drawer for personal files. You decide how best to categorize your filing drawers. But don’t just put all your files together in one drawer without any system otherwise you won’t be able to find anything again!

4. Gather your supplies. Tabbed file folders work best simply because there are no holes to punch or fiddly clasps to undo. You simply drop your papers into your file – making filing your paperwork a cinch!

5. Create quick and easy access to your day-to-day files. A stepped-sorter holds approximately 8-10 files which step up the further back they are – making your files easily visible. Keep this on your desk, and store in it those files you know you will need access to every day.

6. Now move on to your PC filing system. Your PC is a very large filing cabinet, so it makes sense to create a similar filing system here as you did for your paper files. That way you do not have to manage two different filing systems – it’s the same system except one is physical, and the other is electronic.

7. Create a system for your emails. Again, follow a very similar or the same system for creating email folders as you did for your paper and PC files. Outlook and Thunderbird allow you to create different mail folders.

Consistency is the key to an easy-to-use, successful filing system. Create the same files and folders for your paper-based system, your PC system, and your email program.

(c) 2008 Tracey Lawton

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Asterisk Vs Cisco – Avaya VOIP Telephone Systems

VoIP or Voice Over IP, the latest in wireless communication works by taking the phone call, changing from analog to digital signals and transmitting these signals over an IP network or broadband and finally terminating it on a PSTN. Call charges are greatly reduced using this technology. The advantage is that software emulating a phone can be loaded on your laptop thereby enabling you to access its services even while you travel.

VoIP uses SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), a peer-to-peer technology that allows computers to communicate with each other without having calls routed through some central station. Therefore, calling from one SIP enabled phone to another cuts call charges drastically.

The Asterisk System comes with an Asterisk server which manages things like teleconferencing, voice mails, queues and hold music. The hard phone is a digital phone that has an Ethernet jack to communicate with the server using the SIP protocol. They, including the wireless version, are not very expensive. The soft phone are implemented in software and can be attached to a PC. Asterisk runs predominantly on Linux, an open source operating system.

Cisco has telephony solutions that are network based and run on a router. They are scalable and work well in multi-user environments in mulitple locations. The UC500 suite is a bundle of services like router, switches, security, telephony and wireless functionality in a single device. This greatly reduces costs for a company which is planning on these services. The Cisco CallManager Express uses SIP to connect phones through the Internet and also has the features of UC 500 making it more viable for medium scale businesses. Additonal features are paging, intercom, ICMP and class of restrictions on a user’s calls.

Avaya IP Office uses IP technology to deliver voice and data communication, messaging and customer management over multiple locations with 2 to 300 people. It allows you to work from anywhere, host conferences, integrate applications, measure and improve customer satisfaction at the touch of a button. It is cost effective as it lowers long-distance calls, conferencing fees, supports remote workers and helps keep your business collaborated and up-to-date.

The three products can be compared based on the following few criteria:

• Number of extensions: Asterix can support upto 100 extensions while Cisco and Avaya can go upto 360 extensions thereby suporting large organizations as well. This improves the scalability and helps to reduce costs in the long run.

• Freeware: Asterisk is freeware and runs on a Linux server. This makes the telephony solution cheaper than either Cisco or Avaya which make extensive use of routers and switches for communication.

• Installation and maintenance: Asterisk is a programmer’s dream as it is open source and can be changed at his will. However, for an end-user, it may be a nightmare. Support and services are better with Cisco and Avaya which are established names in the industry.

The main thing going for Asterisk is its cost. However, it is not always advisable to look at the initial cost of things. Other criteria like scalability, integrating of one device with others already existing, interoperatability and long run costing should be considered while choosing one product over another.

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Evolution of Telephone – The Journey From the First Telephone to VoIP Phone

Nobody is ignorant of the fact that the first telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in March 1876. That is where the communications field of modern times takes its roots from.

This invention would have not collected much attention, which Bell's weak expectations said, but it was the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, where Brazil's Emperor Dom Pedro de Alcantara took notice of this rather interesting manmade invention. He could not help but be amazed by bell's substantial creativity, which reflected in his creation the telephone.

In the early days, telephone was only seen as a luxury of life rather than a commodity. It only gained more popularity as an essential medium of communication at the time when many corporate and government offices began to use it.

During the 1880's, when metallic circuits were introduced, they took over long distance communications. However, for a decade, its usage remained restricted to a certain class who could afford paying for the heavy calling expenses. Until in the 1890's, with the emergence of party line, it became convenient for people living in rural areas in particular to divide the cost of the line used by many.

Prior to 1891, calls were made by exchange operators, but until until a new system for direct dialing system. Then there was putting telephone to its best use in 1927, when the first transatlantic phone call was made with the help of radio waves. It was the through the time of First and Second World War, when telephone went through a major developmental period, all thanks to the huge expenditures made by the Defense Department for ensuring safer communication across. These series of advances also led to the creation of the first mobile telephone system, which easily connected mobile vehicles to phones using radio waves.

In 60's era, the transatlantic cables were introduced to facilitate for dialing international calls.

Neverheless, the largest shifts seen in the history of telephones was in 1962, when the first telephone satellite TelStar was launched. Telstar was a joint business venture between Bell and NASA for brining in a more advanced form of communication. This paved way for satellites revolving within the geosynchronous orbit to be used for making long distance calls directly without exceeding on the cable lines, not to mention suffering because of the repeated cable damage and repair pain.

Fiber optic cables were first introduced in 1977. By mid 80's, fiber optic cable took precedence over other modes of telephone transmission, because it could facilitate a higher number of calls with less interference, compared to its predecessor methods. It could transmit information more quickly to farther areas and strongly resisted any mishaps particularly lightning strikes. In short, it offered a number of advantages and safer than other modes. Owing to the benefits, these fiber optic cables are also began to be used for computers too.

After the US government relaxed the regulations on telephone service, AT & T met up to face a tough competition from MCI, Sprint and many other local companies. This paved way for fiber optic lines to be used vastly in every industry, even began to be used for natural gas pipelines and railroad tracks.

It was in 1973 when Dr. Martin Cooper belonging to Motorola Corporation created the first cellular telephone call using a portable handset, namely the Dyna-Tac. After it completed a successful test run, it was introduced in New York Public. It was in 1977 when the cell phone became popular among the people. Initially introduced models appeared slightly larger and commonly used by those who were used to stay in touch by two-way radio communication mode. At that time, one could not imagine that it was going to be used by everyone. Cellular phones functioned with small "cells" for service range, to increase the facility of handling more calls. Cell phones made it possible to attend an increased number of calls at a time in one area.

However, initially, the primary cellular services rather used analog system of technology, which functioned at 800 Megahertz incessantly. As the time went on, the industry increased the standard to 1850 MHz with PCS. In 1988, a committee, formerly Cellular Technology Industry Association, was formed to formulate guidelines and put on regulations for the cellular service providers and functioned for development and growth of the cell phone industry. Today, we have approximately 60 million cellular telephone customers, an overwhelming huge number for a service that only started working commercially merely thirty years back.

Today, we use digital cell / mobile phones, in place of analogue phones. The digital technology transfers data in form of "pulses". The benefit of digital signals is that they are rather more securely transmitted compared to its analog contenders, and it gives more efficient bandwidth and a higher quality of sound. You can even share videos and photos while surfing the internet. All at the same time integrated within your phones.

However, in digital technology there is a slight problem with coverage. For example, owing to three different technologies a cellular phone uses, in case you are using a TDMA (time-division multiple access) system but you move in an area, which caters to CDMA (code-division multiple access) digital coverage, then You may have to face technology problems.

There is a perfect solution for it and the united analog-digital technology that the cell phone providers are shifting to. This way you can get excellent great coverage for all types of communication, with high speed and uncompromising quality.

To talk about the first "audio conferencing" to be ever used could be the time when part lines had been introduced for the first time back in telephone's early days. Although, at that time, the only benefit people could seek from the part lines was the economic factor but there was a problem that a number of people in disimilar locations could pick up and talk on the same simultaneously, leading to an eavesdropping situation and zero Privacy element.

The idea of ​​calling a number of people, which was initially derived from part lines, was revived again but this time in a better and more private package. It had time limits and only to be accessed in times of need.

Following this notification, companies all over the world began to offer services, which coordinated a facility for conference calling for companies, giving them fixed rates, monthly fees or based on the number of calls made. This served fruitful as it saved traveling expenses and other calling expenditures. They provided a trained operator to enable connections between every participant on a dedicated line. This way, a group of people could easily communicate with one another at one time. The service providers offered affordable rates to their customers.

Sooner, many telephone-manufacturing companies sometimes Polycom, AT & T and Panasonic developed office telephone systems that allowed office users to invite a client, put them on hold and then dial up another party. This helped in building a multiple-connection set up for callers to communicate easily with more than two people at a time to discuss significant business deals.

Along came internet, which happens to be the best communication medium ever created through the history of mankind. The Internet paced up competition between phone service providers, particularly challenging the audio conferencing facility and the long distance calling cost. Neverheless, they have lowered their calling costs to a greater extent, yet the unbeatable broadband phone or internet phone is becoming everyone's favorite, beating its contender – the traditional telephone, because it is much cheaper and affordable.

Voip, which stands for "Voice Over Internet Protocol" is now the most popular mean of communication because it charges only for call, no regulatory taxes or hidden charges, like the charges put up by traditional phone companies. Voip phones or broadband phone use high-speed internet to function and let you enjoy the same quality of service offered by traditional phones. You can not only make calls with your voip phone but also the high-speed internet phone lets you enjoy services of high-speed data transfer services like data sharing, audio conferencing and video conferencing. With voip, you are guaranteed to save a lot on your calling and communication needs.

VoIP offers you audio conferencing facility to network with multiple groups or parties no matter what their geographical locations are. This enables the customers to connect with their clients spread worldwide and arrange for a virtual meeting online. Today, Voip calling solutions are being provided by Axvoice, Vonage, 8×8, Voxwire, Packet 8, TTCGlobalTalk and VoiceCafe among many others, giving an excellent quality of service.

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Telephone Systems – An Overview On Operating Principle

A Telephone system is a communication instrument that transmits any voice / sound signals to far by locations by converting these sound signals in waves and receives and reconverts the same waves into sound signals/ voice. The telephone network is extended universally so if you want to talk to someone, you simply need to pick up the telephone system and dial a few digits. You are instantly connected to that person and both of you can have a 2 way conversation.

Telephone systems were first introduced by Graham Bell over one hundred years ago, but it is still works on the same operating principle. To make a call, we need to first pick up the handset. This causes the telephone system to be connected to a routing network. By pressing the numbers present on the touch tone keypad / frequency generator, signals are passed down via phone line to the routing station. Here, each digit is identified as a unique combination of tone frequencies. The specific combination of digits causes a signal to be passed to other telephone systems causing it to ring. When that telephone is picked up, connection between the two telephone systems is achieved.

The ear piece acts as speaker where as mouthpiece acts as a microphone. Sound waves from the user’s voice cause vibration to a thin plastic disc present inside the telephone system. This causes change in the distance between the plastic disk and another metal disk resulting in a varying electric current which is passed through the phone lines. The receiver on the other phone picks up this electromagnet current. These magnets cause diaphragm to vibrate which produces the sound /voice that initiated the current. An amplifier in the receiver end makes it easier to hear. When one of the phones is hung up the electric current get broken resulting in dis-connection of the telephone systems.

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The Growing Demand For Mobile Phone Accessories

How sweet it is to be able to have your family picture as your mobile screen saver. Thanks to the new world of mobile phone accessories. They come in different forms, such as ear phone, hands-free kits, Bluetooth, cell phone cases, holsters, chargers, stickers, hand straps. These are available at all types of prices to suit everybody. A USB drive helps you attach your cell phone to computer system through which you can download your favorite songs and videos to your cell phone.

Cell phone has become one of the most used electronic items in the world today. But cell phones by themselves are not so attractive to buy, so mobile companies are trying to attract customers by providing them state of the art accessories. They actually enhance the functional capacity of the phone. This business has skyrocketed to meet the ever-growing demand of the customers. In fact, the accessories also help in the sales of the handsets. Their appearance is also enhanced by these accessories.

These accessories are really useful either for communication, videos, storing databases, music, gaming, or other purpose. It is also being used for internet browsing and even business documentation. It is even possible to be connected to the world from the very premises of your home. Day by day, the uses of a cell phone are increasing, and with it the demand for accessories is also increasing.

If you already own one, you will know how easy your life has become because of this technology. Mobile phone manufacturers are providing some high-end mobile phone with preloaded accessories as software attachment or as part of the offer with the mobile phones as hardware items to boost the sales. They are cashing in on this huge sales attraction.

The mobile phone manufacturers are also getting into the business of manufacturing accessories, and these are sold in various ranges in the open market. Not only this, the mobile phones are being manufactured in a way that it is technology-friendly and compatible to all kinds of phone accessories. Mobile phone accessories are becoming indispensable to the base product.

The main categories of accessories available are batteries, Bluetooth devices, cables, chargers, covers, hands free, MoPods and speakers.

These accessories can be bought online as well. So now you can buy mobile accessories from anywhere in the world while being in the comfort of your home. But choosing the right online store is a big challenge. Therefore, before buying any mobile phone accessories online, considering the following points can be helpful:

* Consider the prices of several online stores selling cell phones and their accessories to get the best deal.

* Check the payment options whether they have flexible payment option.

* See how fast they can deliver the product.

* Consider the safety and security of the payment options.

* See if the online store is offering great discounts on their products.

It is always a good idea to buy some accessory for your existing phone rather than replacing the phone itself. Today, cell phones and their add-on accessories are readily available everywhere but care must be taken when you buy these because the duplication has also increased manifold because of the massive demand.

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