Role of Stock Market in Financial System

The stock market plays a crucial role in the financial system. It is considered as one of the best ways to increase their funds. But before you make any investment into the stock market, you should know how to get started. It may turn out to be a profitable affair as long as you know the tricks of the trade. To start with, you must have an account in your preferred brokerage.

You need to pay the corresponding transaction fee as they will be acting on your behalf. Primarily the stock market offer liquidity which empowers the financers to trade efficiently on their securities. This is considered as one of the best features of stock market investment. Also the exchange rates are vital in financial dealings as it eradicates the risk to personal purchaser or supplier.

Many pioneer economists believe that the role of stock market has opened new avenues in terms of financial as well as the economic growth of a country. Today with easy access to internet you can buy or sell instantly with online stock trading system. Although stock market can boost your financial stability but you should never overlook the risks attached to it.

Basically it's a matter of sharp market observation and speculation. The ever fluctuating stock market can leave you high and dry. You need to understand how to minimize the risks on your investments. Proper financial guide, market research, expert advice can help you to deal with the risks involved to a great extent.

Asterisk Vs Cisco – Avaya VOIP Telephone Systems

VoIP or Voice Over IP, the latest in wireless communication works by taking the phone call, changing from analog to digital signals and transmitting these signals over an IP network or broadband and finally terminating it on a PSTN. Call charges are greatly reduced using this technology. The advantage is that software emulating a phone can be loaded on your laptop thereby enabling you to access its services even while you travel.

VoIP uses SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), a peer-to-peer technology that allows computers to communicate with each other without having calls routed through some central station. Therefore, calling from one SIP enabled phone to another cuts call charges drastically.

The Asterisk System comes with an Asterisk server which manages things like teleconferencing, voice mails, queues and hold music. The hard phone is a digital phone that has an Ethernet jack to communicate with the server using the SIP protocol. They, including the wireless version, are not very expensive. The soft phone are implemented in software and can be attached to a PC. Asterisk runs predominantly on Linux, an open source operating system.

Cisco has telephony solutions that are network based and run on a router. They are scalable and work well in multi-user environments in mulitple locations. The UC500 suite is a bundle of services like router, switches, security, telephony and wireless functionality in a single device. This greatly reduces costs for a company which is planning on these services. The Cisco CallManager Express uses SIP to connect phones through the Internet and also has the features of UC 500 making it more viable for medium scale businesses. Additonal features are paging, intercom, ICMP and class of restrictions on a user’s calls.

Avaya IP Office uses IP technology to deliver voice and data communication, messaging and customer management over multiple locations with 2 to 300 people. It allows you to work from anywhere, host conferences, integrate applications, measure and improve customer satisfaction at the touch of a button. It is cost effective as it lowers long-distance calls, conferencing fees, supports remote workers and helps keep your business collaborated and up-to-date.

The three products can be compared based on the following few criteria:

• Number of extensions: Asterix can support upto 100 extensions while Cisco and Avaya can go upto 360 extensions thereby suporting large organizations as well. This improves the scalability and helps to reduce costs in the long run.

• Freeware: Asterisk is freeware and runs on a Linux server. This makes the telephony solution cheaper than either Cisco or Avaya which make extensive use of routers and switches for communication.

• Installation and maintenance: Asterisk is a programmer’s dream as it is open source and can be changed at his will. However, for an end-user, it may be a nightmare. Support and services are better with Cisco and Avaya which are established names in the industry.

The main thing going for Asterisk is its cost. However, it is not always advisable to look at the initial cost of things. Other criteria like scalability, integrating of one device with others already existing, interoperatability and long run costing should be considered while choosing one product over another.

The Value of Written Communication

Have you ever stopped to consider the value associated with written communication? While our society has become so driven by the visual and the verbal, it is written communications that provide daily direction to us as individuals and to our society as a whole.

Consider these elements of value provided by written communication:

• Written communications INFORM. Would you be pleased to know that the pilot of your jetliner is going over the preflight checklist from memory? Or the pharmacist is ignoring your physician’s orders and guessing which medicine you require? Or your employer failing to notify you in writing of an important change in your medical benefits? Obviously, we need written communications to provide information and facilitate understanding. We read newspapers, books, and magazines. We decide on what to eat from reading a menu. We make purchases based upon written specifications and reviews. With the veritable explosion of information now available to anyone with an internet connection, we can become informed on virtually anything/everything.

• Written communications PROVIDE CLARITY. While any form of communication can be confusing or ambiguous, as a general rule written communications provide more clarity than verbal instructions. Written communications, as opposed to the verbal form, can be referred to repeatedly if one’s memory is less than stellar. Presidents send our armed forces to war with written orders. Military commanders develop plans and issue their own written orders. Rules of engagement are provided in written form to combatants. Clarity is typically better served in writing.

• Written communications PROVIDE A BASIS FOR AN ORDERLY SOCIETY. Our laws are developed, interpreted, and communicated to citizens in written form, from Supreme Court decisions to posted speed limits to search warrants. Our public entities and private companies publish written codes of conduct to establish standards of acceptable behavior. Our games are guided by written rules of play (imagine how players and fans would react if game officials ad-libbed the rules and the home team lost!).

• Written communications are TIMELESS. Moses didn’t rely on his memory for the Ten Commandments. We have the documents of our nation’s history-the Constitution and Declaration of Independence, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, Eisenhower’s message on the eve of D-Day-that are preserved and revered in their written form. Letters we write to friends and loved ones are saved and appreciated for years, perhaps even generations.

Surely you’ve heard the phrase, “Put it in writing.” So often, the written form of communication is the most effective way to educate and inform. There is indeed often great value in “putting it in writing.”

What Is Toyota Production System?

What is Toyota Production System (TPS)?

Toyota production system is an efficient productive system that is accepted worldwide by many of the businesses and was generally proved to be one of the most effective ways to make profit and to balance production along with money circulation. Toyota production system is a simple way of making things fast, quick, and productive. It is well-known for its efficiency and its just-in-time concept that results in a continuous product managing process and a well self-defense plan for a business, not to keep numbers of defective products in storage. TPS is famous for its productive management process that comes together in pair, the Jidoka and the Just-in-Time concept, in which a specific number of products are produced to prevent large numbers of stocks that are not needed. Both the Jidoka and the Just-in-Time concept are widely-used in world-wide businesses and are guaranteed to be the two best ways to manage the production process and to maintain stability in a business efficiently.

Its Origin

Form its name, 'Toyota' is a company from the land of the rising sun, Japan. Japan is indeed the world's most technological country filled with technology and a wide-variety of rituals and cultural performances that wows the world with its beautiful nature as well as its wise business management and productivity processes. Developed by Taichii Ohno, the TPS or the Toyota Production System functions efficiently and was shared globally to all businesses. Many Japanese philosophers at that time thought out ideas on managing process and productivity in order to improve businesses and to enhance their efficiency through products and their high quality. Eiji Toyoda cave employees and workers values ​​and importance which increased productivity and teaming within offices, faculties, and companies.

The Jidoka

The Jidoka is a simple concept of visualization and determination of problems. It ensures that all machines or capitals work well without any technical problems. If any problems are detected or if the machines are malfunctioned, then the machines will automatically stop once normal processes are done. Jidoka is generally a quality testing visualization concept that will ensure businesses their product quality and minimize malfunctions of capitals, stock, as well as loss of profit. With the Jidoka concept, products with high quality will be produced. These satisfying quality products will be further passed on to next processes. Jidoka is considered simple and technological due to its multiple installations of the andons or the problem-display screen in different parts of the company that will show the operators problems detected by the system. These operators can work on many parts of the production system and can monitor numbers of machines all at the same time with the help of technology and a well-developed plan, the Jidoka concept. This concept will benefit the whole system being increasing productivity while improvements lead to a better processing capacity

Pros and Cons of Jidoka

Pros:

1. It eliminates wastes or products that are defective or malfunctioned

2. It ensures product quality

3. Provide safety for workers and employers

4. Keeps goals oriented

5. More percentage of reaching set profits and expectations

Cons:

1. High cost of technological tools

2. Specific target market

3. Result in an unstable productivity

4. Strict rules and regulations

Just-in-Time

Just-in-Time is a quick, fast concept in the production line that ensures its operations safety by elimination of wastes and by producing only what is needed by setting how much products should be produced and when they should be produced which will include ways to Store products safely. The Just-in-Time concept is primarily used in motor or vehicle businesses which deals very much with production of vehicles and the transportation plans which includes period of time needed to complete orders and ways vehicles are transported.

How Just-in-Time works

1. Once an order is placed, it should be delivered as quickly as possible to the first line of production.

2. The assembly line or those in charge of vehicle parts like wheels, colors, and seats has to have all parts well-equipped and ready made in order to function automatically as soon as possible once an order is placed.

3. The numbers or the amount of parts has to be the same for both the assembly line as well as the parts-producing process.

4. The preceding process group has to have spare amounts of all parts of a vehicle and should have at least an amount retrieved by the business's operator.

By following 5 simple steps in the production process or line, elimination of wastes and inconsistencies will ensure profit expectations as well as standard requirements of the businesses. One of the concepts within the Just-in-Time system is the Kanban system. The Kanban systems use the idea of ​​supermarket management and productivity. The Kanban system uses codes, serial numbers, and names to make all parts of the production process easy and flexible. It will help improve the structure of the production process as well as keep the processes on tract. The supermarket storage idea provides needed amount of products in relation to the demands in the market and so it is convenient for customers because products are in stock just only in a limited amount.

Pros and Cons of Just-in-Time Concept

Pros:

1. Funds that were kept and tied up in inventories could be used later in other processes

2. Quick response to customer

3. Product quality ensured

4. Defect rates are reduced

5. Greater potential output

Cons:

1. Expensive and costly to introduce

2. Not enough products in stock

3. Not enough time to complete orders / overhaul of productivity

4. Strict rules and regulations

Summary

The Toyota Production System or the TPS is indeed an efficient way to ensure product quality and make sure products are produced fast and quickly. TPS allows high productivity and an increase in demand for products. Components of specific products can be ordered accordingly; Large amount of stocks are not kept and wastes are eliminated effectively to reach the company's goals that are set and directed as well as reach standard requirements.